Overview This extension provides a number of new capabilities and controls for text keyboards. The core X protocol specifies the ways that the Shift , Control and Lock modifiers and the modifiers bound to the Mode_switch or Num_Lock keysyms interact to generate keysyms and characters. The core protocol also allows users to specify that a key affects one or more modifiers. This behavior is simple and fairly flexible, but it has a number of limitations that make it difficult or impossible to properly support many common varieties of keyboard behavior. The limitations of core protocol support for keyboards include: Use of a single, uniform, four-symbol mapping for all keyboard keys makes it difficult to properly support keyboard overlays, PC-style break keys or keyboards that comply with ISO9995 or a host of other national and international standards. Use of a modifier to specify a second keyboard group has side-effects that wreak havoc with client grabs and X toolkit translations and limit us to two keyboard groups. Poorly specified locking key behavior requires X servers to look for a few "magic" keysyms to determine which keys should lock when pressed. This leads to incompatibilities between X servers with no way for clients to detect implementation differences. Poorly specified capitalization and control behavior requires modifications to X library source code to support new character sets or locales and can lead to incompatibilities between system-wide and X library capitalization behavior. Limited interactions between modifiers specified by the core protocol make many common keyboard behaviors difficult or impossible to implement. For example, there is no reliable way to indicate whether or not using shift should "cancel" the lock modifier. The lack of any explicit descriptions for indicators, most modifiers and other aspects of the keyboard appearance requires clients that wish to clearly describe the keyboard to a user to resort to a mishmash of prior knowledge and heuristics. This extension makes it possible to clearly and explicitly specify most aspects of keyboard behavior on a per-key basis. It adds the notion of a numeric keyboard group to the global keyboard state and provides mechanisms to more closely track the logical and physical state of the keyboard. For keyboard control clients, this extension provides descriptions and symbolic names for many aspects of keyboard appearance and behavior. It also includes a number of keyboard controls designed to make keyboards more accessible to people with movement impairments. The X Keyboard Extension essentially replaces the core protocol definition of a keyboard. The following sections describe the new capabilities of the extension and the effect of the extension on core protocol requests, events and errors. Conventions and Assumptions This document uses the syntactic conventions, common types, and errors defined in sections two through four of the specification of the X Window System Protocol. This document assumes familiarity with the fundamental concepts of X, especially those related to the way that X handles keyboards. Readers who are not familiar with the meaning or use of keycodes, keysyms or modifiers should consult (at least) the first five chapters of the protocol specification of the X Window System before continuing.