theoradec.c 29.2 KB
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/* GStreamer
 * Copyright (C) 2004 Benjamin Otte <in7y118@public.uni-hamburg.de>
 *
 * This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
 * modify it under the terms of the GNU Library General Public
 * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
 * version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
 * Library General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU Library General Public
 * License along with this library; if not, write to the
 * Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
 * Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
 */

#ifdef HAVE_CONFIG_H
#  include "config.h"
#endif

#include <gst/gst.h>
#include <theora/theora.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <gst/tag/tag.h>

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GST_DEBUG_CATEGORY (theoradec_debug);
#define GST_CAT_DEFAULT theoradec_debug
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#define GST_TYPE_THEORA_DEC \
  (gst_theora_dec_get_type())
#define GST_THEORA_DEC(obj) \
  (G_TYPE_CHECK_INSTANCE_CAST((obj),GST_TYPE_THEORA_DEC,GstTheoraDec))
#define GST_THEORA_DEC_CLASS(klass) \
  (G_TYPE_CHECK_CLASS_CAST((klass),GST_TYPE_THEORA_DEC,GstTheoraDec))
#define GST_IS_THEORA_DEC(obj) \
  (G_TYPE_CHECK_INSTANCE_TYPE((obj),GST_TYPE_THEORA_DEC))
#define GST_IS_THEORA_DEC_CLASS(obj) \
  (G_TYPE_CHECK_CLASS_TYPE((klass),GST_TYPE_THEORA_DEC))

typedef struct _GstTheoraDec GstTheoraDec;
typedef struct _GstTheoraDecClass GstTheoraDecClass;

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struct _GstTheoraDec
{
  GstElement element;

  GstPad *sinkpad;
  GstPad *srcpad;

  theora_state state;
  theora_info info;
  theora_comment comment;

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  gboolean have_header;
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  guint64 granulepos;
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  GstClockTime last_timestamp;
  guint64 frame_nr;
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  gboolean need_keyframe;
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  gint width, height;
  gint offset_x, offset_y;
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  gboolean crop;
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  GList *queued;
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  gdouble segment_rate;
  gint64 segment_start;
  gint64 segment_stop;
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  gint64 segment_time;
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};

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struct _GstTheoraDecClass
{
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  GstElementClass parent_class;
};

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#define THEORA_DEF_CROP         TRUE
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enum
{
  ARG_0,
  ARG_CROP
};

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static GstElementDetails theora_dec_details = {
  "TheoraDec",
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  "Codec/Decoder/Video",
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  "decode raw theora streams to raw YUV video",
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  "Benjamin Otte <in7y118@public.uni-hamburg.de>, "
      "Wim Taymans <wim@fluendo.com>",
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};

static GstStaticPadTemplate theora_dec_src_factory =
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GST_STATIC_PAD_TEMPLATE ("src",
    GST_PAD_SRC,
    GST_PAD_ALWAYS,
    GST_STATIC_CAPS ("video/x-raw-yuv, "
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        "format = (fourcc) I420, "
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        "framerate = (fraction) [0/1, MAX], "
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        "width = (int) [ 1, MAX ], " "height = (int) [ 1, MAX ]")
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    );
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static GstStaticPadTemplate theora_dec_sink_factory =
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GST_STATIC_PAD_TEMPLATE ("sink",
    GST_PAD_SINK,
    GST_PAD_ALWAYS,
    GST_STATIC_CAPS ("video/x-theora")
    );
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GST_BOILERPLATE (GstTheoraDec, gst_theora_dec, GstElement, GST_TYPE_ELEMENT);
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static void theora_dec_get_property (GObject * object, guint prop_id,
    GValue * value, GParamSpec * pspec);
static void theora_dec_set_property (GObject * object, guint prop_id,
    const GValue * value, GParamSpec * pspec);

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static gboolean theora_dec_sink_event (GstPad * pad, GstEvent * event);
static GstFlowReturn theora_dec_chain (GstPad * pad, GstBuffer * buffer);
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static GstStateChangeReturn theora_dec_change_state (GstElement * element,
    GstStateChange transition);
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static gboolean theora_dec_src_event (GstPad * pad, GstEvent * event);
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static gboolean theora_dec_src_query (GstPad * pad, GstQuery * query);
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static gboolean theora_dec_src_convert (GstPad * pad,
    GstFormat src_format, gint64 src_value,
    GstFormat * dest_format, gint64 * dest_value);
static gboolean theora_dec_sink_convert (GstPad * pad,
    GstFormat src_format, gint64 src_value,
    GstFormat * dest_format, gint64 * dest_value);
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static gboolean theora_dec_sink_query (GstPad * pad, GstQuery * query);
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static GstCaps *theora_dec_src_getcaps (GstPad * pad);
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#if 0
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static const GstFormat *theora_get_formats (GstPad * pad);
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#endif
#if 0
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static const GstEventMask *theora_get_event_masks (GstPad * pad);
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#endif
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static const GstQueryType *theora_get_query_types (GstPad * pad);
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static void
gst_theora_dec_base_init (gpointer g_class)
{
  GstElementClass *element_class = GST_ELEMENT_CLASS (g_class);
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  gst_element_class_add_pad_template (element_class,
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      gst_static_pad_template_get (&theora_dec_src_factory));
  gst_element_class_add_pad_template (element_class,
      gst_static_pad_template_get (&theora_dec_sink_factory));
  gst_element_class_set_details (element_class, &theora_dec_details);
}

static void
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gst_theora_dec_class_init (GstTheoraDecClass * klass)
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{
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  GObjectClass *gobject_class = G_OBJECT_CLASS (klass);
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  GstElementClass *gstelement_class = GST_ELEMENT_CLASS (klass);

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  gobject_class->set_property = theora_dec_set_property;
  gobject_class->get_property = theora_dec_get_property;

  g_object_class_install_property (gobject_class, ARG_CROP,
      g_param_spec_boolean ("crop", "Crop",
          "Crop the image to the visible region", THEORA_DEF_CROP,
          (GParamFlags) G_PARAM_READWRITE));

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  gstelement_class->change_state = theora_dec_change_state;
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  GST_DEBUG_CATEGORY_INIT (theoradec_debug, "theoradec", 0, "Theora decoder");
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}

static void
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gst_theora_dec_init (GstTheoraDec * dec, GstTheoraDecClass * g_class)
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{
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  dec->sinkpad =
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      gst_pad_new_from_static_template (&theora_dec_sink_factory, "sink");
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  gst_pad_set_query_function (dec->sinkpad, theora_dec_sink_query);
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  gst_pad_set_event_function (dec->sinkpad, theora_dec_sink_event);
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  gst_pad_set_chain_function (dec->sinkpad, theora_dec_chain);
  gst_element_add_pad (GST_ELEMENT (dec), dec->sinkpad);

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  dec->srcpad =
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      gst_pad_new_from_static_template (&theora_dec_src_factory, "src");
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  gst_pad_set_getcaps_function (dec->srcpad, theora_dec_src_getcaps);
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  gst_pad_set_event_function (dec->srcpad, theora_dec_src_event);
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  gst_pad_set_query_type_function (dec->srcpad, theora_get_query_types);
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  gst_pad_set_query_function (dec->srcpad, theora_dec_src_query);
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  gst_element_add_pad (GST_ELEMENT (dec), dec->srcpad);

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  dec->crop = THEORA_DEF_CROP;
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  dec->queued = NULL;
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}
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/* FIXME: copy from libtheora, theora should somehow make this available for seeking */
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static int
_theora_ilog (unsigned int v)
{
  int ret = 0;

  while (v) {
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    ret++;
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    v >>= 1;
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  }
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  return (ret);
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}

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static void
_inc_granulepos (GstTheoraDec * dec)
{
  guint ilog;
  gint framecount;

  if (dec->granulepos == -1)
    return;

  ilog = _theora_ilog (dec->info.keyframe_frequency_force - 1);

  framecount = dec->granulepos >> ilog;
  framecount += dec->granulepos - (framecount << ilog);

  GST_DEBUG_OBJECT (dec, "framecount=%d, ilog=%u", framecount, ilog);

  framecount++;

  dec->granulepos = (framecount << ilog);
}

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#if 0
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static const GstFormat *
theora_get_formats (GstPad * pad)
{
  static GstFormat src_formats[] = {
    GST_FORMAT_DEFAULT,         /* frames in this case */
    GST_FORMAT_TIME,
    GST_FORMAT_BYTES,
    0
  };
  static GstFormat sink_formats[] = {
    GST_FORMAT_DEFAULT,
    GST_FORMAT_TIME,
    0
  };

  return (GST_PAD_IS_SRC (pad) ? src_formats : sink_formats);
}
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#endif
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#if 0
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static const GstEventMask *
theora_get_event_masks (GstPad * pad)
{
  static const GstEventMask theora_src_event_masks[] = {
    {GST_EVENT_SEEK, GST_SEEK_METHOD_SET | GST_SEEK_FLAG_FLUSH},
    {0,}
  };

  return theora_src_event_masks;
}
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#endif
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static const GstQueryType *
theora_get_query_types (GstPad * pad)
{
  static const GstQueryType theora_src_query_types[] = {
    GST_QUERY_POSITION,
    0
  };

  return theora_src_query_types;
}


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static gboolean
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theora_dec_src_convert (GstPad * pad,
    GstFormat src_format, gint64 src_value,
    GstFormat * dest_format, gint64 * dest_value)
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{
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  gboolean res = TRUE;
  GstTheoraDec *dec;
  guint64 scale = 1;

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  dec = GST_THEORA_DEC (GST_PAD_PARENT (pad));
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  /* we need the info part before we can done something */
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  if (!dec->have_header)
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    return FALSE;

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  if (src_format == *dest_format) {
    *dest_value = src_value;
    return TRUE;
  }

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  switch (src_format) {
    case GST_FORMAT_BYTES:
      switch (*dest_format) {
        case GST_FORMAT_DEFAULT:
          *dest_value =
              src_value * 2 / (dec->info.height * dec->info.width * 3);
          break;
        case GST_FORMAT_TIME:
          /* seems like a rather silly conversion, implement me if you like */
        default:
          res = FALSE;
      }
      break;
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    case GST_FORMAT_TIME:
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      switch (*dest_format) {
        case GST_FORMAT_BYTES:
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          scale = 3 * (dec->info.width * dec->info.height) / 2;
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        case GST_FORMAT_DEFAULT:
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          *dest_value =
              scale * (((guint64) src_value * dec->info.fps_numerator) /
              (dec->info.fps_denominator * GST_SECOND));
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          break;
        default:
          res = FALSE;
      }
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      break;
    case GST_FORMAT_DEFAULT:
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      switch (*dest_format) {
        case GST_FORMAT_TIME:
          *dest_value = src_value * (GST_SECOND * dec->info.fps_denominator /
              dec->info.fps_numerator);
          break;
        case GST_FORMAT_BYTES:
          *dest_value =
              src_value * 3 * (dec->info.width * dec->info.height) / 2;
          break;
        default:
          res = FALSE;
      }
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      break;
    default:
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      res = FALSE;
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  }
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  return res;
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}

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static gboolean
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theora_dec_sink_convert (GstPad * pad,
    GstFormat src_format, gint64 src_value,
    GstFormat * dest_format, gint64 * dest_value)
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{
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  gboolean res = TRUE;
  GstTheoraDec *dec;
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  dec = GST_THEORA_DEC (GST_PAD_PARENT (pad));
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  /* we need the info part before we can done something */
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  if (!dec->have_header)
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    return FALSE;

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  if (src_format == *dest_format) {
    *dest_value = src_value;
    return TRUE;
  }

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  switch (src_format) {
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    case GST_FORMAT_DEFAULT:
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    {
      guint64 framecount;
      guint ilog;

      ilog = _theora_ilog (dec->info.keyframe_frequency_force - 1);

      /* granulepos is last ilog bits for counting pframes since last iframe and 
       * bits in front of that for the framenumber of the last iframe. */
      framecount = src_value >> ilog;
      framecount += src_value - (framecount << ilog);

      switch (*dest_format) {
        case GST_FORMAT_TIME:
          *dest_value = framecount * (GST_SECOND * dec->info.fps_denominator /
              dec->info.fps_numerator);
          break;
        default:
          res = FALSE;
      }
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      break;
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    }
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    case GST_FORMAT_TIME:
    {
      switch (*dest_format) {
        case GST_FORMAT_DEFAULT:
        {
          guint ilog = _theora_ilog (dec->info.keyframe_frequency_force - 1);
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          guint rest;
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          /* framecount */
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          *dest_value = src_value * dec->info.fps_numerator /
              (GST_SECOND * dec->info.fps_denominator);
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          /* funny way of calculating granulepos in theora */
          rest = *dest_value / dec->info.keyframe_frequency_force;
          *dest_value -= rest;
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          *dest_value <<= ilog;
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          *dest_value += rest;
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          break;
        }
        default:
          res = FALSE;
          break;
      }
      break;
    }
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    default:
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      res = FALSE;
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  }
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  return res;
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}
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static gboolean
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theora_dec_src_query (GstPad * pad, GstQuery * query)
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{
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  GstTheoraDec *dec = GST_THEORA_DEC (GST_PAD_PARENT (pad));
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  gboolean res = FALSE;

  switch (GST_QUERY_TYPE (query)) {
    case GST_QUERY_POSITION:
    {
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      gint64 granulepos, value;
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      GstFormat my_format, format;
      gint64 time;

      /* we can convert a granule position to everything */
      granulepos = dec->granulepos;

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      GST_LOG_OBJECT (dec,
          "query %p: we have current granule: %lld", query, granulepos);

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      /* parse format */
      gst_query_parse_position (query, &format, NULL);
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      /* and convert to the final format in two steps with time as the 
       * intermediate step */
      my_format = GST_FORMAT_TIME;
      if (!(res =
              theora_dec_sink_convert (dec->sinkpad, GST_FORMAT_DEFAULT,
                  granulepos, &my_format, &time)))
        goto error;

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      time = (time - dec->segment_start) + dec->segment_time;
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      GST_LOG_OBJECT (dec,
          "query %p: our time: %" GST_TIME_FORMAT, query, GST_TIME_ARGS (time));

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      if (!(res =
              theora_dec_src_convert (pad, my_format, time, &format, &value)))
        goto error;

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      gst_query_set_position (query, format, value);
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      GST_LOG_OBJECT (dec,
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          "query %p: we return %lld (format %u)", query, value, format);
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      break;
    }
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    case GST_QUERY_DURATION:
      /* forward to peer for total */
      if (!(res = gst_pad_query (GST_PAD_PEER (dec->sinkpad), query)))
        goto error;
      break;
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    case GST_QUERY_CONVERT:
    {
      GstFormat src_fmt, dest_fmt;
      gint64 src_val, dest_val;

      gst_query_parse_convert (query, &src_fmt, &src_val, &dest_fmt, &dest_val);
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      if (!(res =
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              theora_dec_src_convert (pad, src_fmt, src_val, &dest_fmt,
                  &dest_val)))
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        goto error;

      gst_query_set_convert (query, src_fmt, src_val, dest_fmt, dest_val);
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      break;
    }
    default:
      res = FALSE;
      break;
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  }
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  return res;
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error:
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  GST_DEBUG ("query failed");
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  return res;
}

static gboolean
theora_dec_sink_query (GstPad * pad, GstQuery * query)
{
  gboolean res = FALSE;

  switch (GST_QUERY_TYPE (query)) {
    case GST_QUERY_CONVERT:
    {
      GstFormat src_fmt, dest_fmt;
      gint64 src_val, dest_val;
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      gst_query_parse_convert (query, &src_fmt, &src_val, &dest_fmt, &dest_val);
      if (!(res =
              theora_dec_sink_convert (pad, src_fmt, src_val, &dest_fmt,
                  &dest_val)))
        goto error;

      gst_query_set_convert (query, src_fmt, src_val, dest_fmt, dest_val);
      break;
    }
    default:
      res = FALSE;
      break;
  }
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error:
  return res;
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}

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static gboolean
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theora_dec_src_event (GstPad * pad, GstEvent * event)
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{
  gboolean res = TRUE;
  GstTheoraDec *dec;

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  dec = GST_THEORA_DEC (GST_PAD_PARENT (pad));
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  switch (GST_EVENT_TYPE (event)) {
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    case GST_EVENT_SEEK:{
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      GstFormat format, tformat;
      gdouble rate;
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      GstEvent *real_seek;
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      GstSeekFlags flags;
      GstSeekType cur_type, stop_type;
      gint64 cur, stop;
      gint64 tcur, tstop;

      gst_event_parse_seek (event, &rate, &format, &flags, &cur_type, &cur,
          &stop_type, &stop);
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      /* we have to ask our peer to seek to time here as we know
       * nothing about how to generate a granulepos from the src
       * formats or anything.
       * 
       * First bring the requested format to time 
       */
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      tformat = GST_FORMAT_TIME;
      if (!(res = theora_dec_src_convert (pad, format, cur, &tformat, &tcur)))
        goto error;
      if (!(res = theora_dec_src_convert (pad, format, stop, &tformat, &tstop)))
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        goto error;
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      /* then seek with time on the peer */
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      real_seek = gst_event_new_seek (rate, GST_FORMAT_TIME,
          flags, cur_type, tcur, stop_type, tstop);
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      res = gst_pad_push_event (dec->sinkpad, real_seek);
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      gst_event_unref (event);
      break;
    }
    default:
      res = gst_pad_event_default (pad, event);
      break;
  }

  return res;
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error:
  gst_event_unref (event);
  return res;
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}

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static GstCaps *
theora_dec_src_getcaps (GstPad * pad)
{
  GstCaps *caps;

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  GST_OBJECT_LOCK (pad);
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  if (!(caps = GST_PAD_CAPS (pad)))
    caps = (GstCaps *) gst_pad_get_pad_template_caps (pad);
  caps = gst_caps_ref (caps);
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  GST_OBJECT_UNLOCK (pad);
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  return caps;
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}

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static gboolean
theora_dec_sink_event (GstPad * pad, GstEvent * event)
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{
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  gboolean ret = FALSE;
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  GstTheoraDec *dec;

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  dec = GST_THEORA_DEC (gst_pad_get_parent (pad));
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  GST_LOG_OBJECT (dec, "handling event");
  switch (GST_EVENT_TYPE (event)) {
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    case GST_EVENT_EOS:
      ret = gst_pad_push_event (dec->srcpad, event);
      break;
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    case GST_EVENT_NEWSEGMENT:
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    {
      GstFormat format;
      gdouble rate;
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      gint64 start, stop, time;
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      gst_event_parse_new_segment (event, NULL, &rate, &format, &start, &stop,
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          &time);
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      /* we need TIME and a positive rate */
      if (format != GST_FORMAT_TIME)
        goto newseg_wrong_format;

      if (rate <= 0.0)
        goto newseg_wrong_rate;

      /* now copy over the values */
      dec->segment_rate = rate;
      dec->segment_start = start;
      dec->segment_stop = stop;
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      dec->segment_time = time;
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      dec->need_keyframe = TRUE;
      dec->granulepos = -1;
      dec->last_timestamp = -1;
      ret = gst_pad_push_event (dec->srcpad, event);
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      break;
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    }
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    default:
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      ret = gst_pad_push_event (dec->srcpad, event);
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      break;
  }
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done:
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  gst_object_unref (dec);

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  return ret;
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  /* ERRORS */
newseg_wrong_format:
  {
    GST_DEBUG ("received non TIME newsegment");
    goto done;
  }
newseg_wrong_rate:
  {
    GST_DEBUG ("negative rates not supported yet");
    goto done;
  }
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}

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#define ROUND_UP_2(x) (((x) + 1) & ~1)
#define ROUND_UP_4(x) (((x) + 3) & ~3)
#define ROUND_UP_8(x) (((x) + 7) & ~7)

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static GstFlowReturn
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theora_handle_comment_packet (GstTheoraDec * dec, ogg_packet * packet)
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{
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  gchar *encoder = NULL;
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  GstBuffer *buf;
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  GstTagList *list;

  GST_DEBUG ("parsing comment packet");

  buf = gst_buffer_new_and_alloc (packet->bytes);
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  memcpy (GST_BUFFER_DATA (buf), packet->packet, packet->bytes);
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  list =
      gst_tag_list_from_vorbiscomment_buffer (buf, (guint8 *) "\201theora", 7,
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      &encoder);

  gst_buffer_unref (buf);

  if (!list) {
    GST_ERROR_OBJECT (dec, "couldn't decode comments");
    list = gst_tag_list_new ();
  }
  if (encoder) {
    gst_tag_list_add (list, GST_TAG_MERGE_REPLACE,
        GST_TAG_ENCODER, encoder, NULL);
    g_free (encoder);
  }
  gst_tag_list_add (list, GST_TAG_MERGE_REPLACE,
      GST_TAG_ENCODER_VERSION, dec->info.version_major,
      GST_TAG_NOMINAL_BITRATE, dec->info.target_bitrate,
      GST_TAG_VIDEO_CODEC, "Theora", NULL);

  //gst_element_found_tags_for_pad (GST_ELEMENT (dec), dec->srcpad, 0, list);
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  gst_tag_list_free (list);
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  return GST_FLOW_OK;
}

static GstFlowReturn
theora_handle_type_packet (GstTheoraDec * dec, ogg_packet * packet)
{
  GstCaps *caps;
  gint par_num, par_den;

  GST_DEBUG_OBJECT (dec, "fps %d/%d, PAR %d/%d",
      dec->info.fps_numerator, dec->info.fps_denominator,
      dec->info.aspect_numerator, dec->info.aspect_denominator);

  /* calculate par
   * the info.aspect_* values reflect PAR;
   * 0:0 is allowed and can be interpreted as 1:1, so correct for it */
  par_num = dec->info.aspect_numerator;
  par_den = dec->info.aspect_denominator;
  if (par_num == 0 && par_den == 0) {
    par_num = par_den = 1;
  }
  /* theora has:
   *
   *  width/height : dimension of the encoded frame 
   *  frame_width/frame_height : dimension of the visible part
   *  offset_x/offset_y : offset in encoded frame where visible part starts
   */
  GST_DEBUG_OBJECT (dec, "dimension %dx%d, PAR %d/%d", dec->info.width,
      dec->info.height, par_num, par_den);
  GST_DEBUG_OBJECT (dec, "frame dimension %dx%d, offset %d:%d",
      dec->info.frame_width, dec->info.frame_height,
      dec->info.offset_x, dec->info.offset_y);

  if (dec->crop) {
    /* add black borders to make width/height/offsets even. we need this because
     * we cannot express an offset to the peer plugin. */
    dec->width = ROUND_UP_2 (dec->info.frame_width + (dec->info.offset_x & 1));
    dec->height =
        ROUND_UP_2 (dec->info.frame_height + (dec->info.offset_y & 1));
    dec->offset_x = dec->info.offset_x & ~1;
    dec->offset_y = dec->info.offset_y & ~1;
  } else {
    /* no cropping, use the encoded dimensions */
    dec->width = dec->info.width;
    dec->height = dec->info.height;
    dec->offset_x = 0;
    dec->offset_y = 0;
  }

  GST_DEBUG_OBJECT (dec, "after fixup frame dimension %dx%d, offset %d:%d",
      dec->width, dec->height, dec->offset_x, dec->offset_y);

  /* done */
  theora_decode_init (&dec->state, &dec->info);

  caps = gst_caps_new_simple ("video/x-raw-yuv",
      "format", GST_TYPE_FOURCC, GST_MAKE_FOURCC ('I', '4', '2', '0'),
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      "framerate", GST_TYPE_FRACTION,
      dec->info.fps_numerator, dec->info.fps_denominator,
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      "pixel-aspect-ratio", GST_TYPE_FRACTION, par_num, par_den,
      "width", G_TYPE_INT, dec->width, "height", G_TYPE_INT, dec->height, NULL);
  gst_pad_set_caps (dec->srcpad, caps);
  gst_caps_unref (caps);

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  dec->have_header = TRUE;
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  return GST_FLOW_OK;
}

static GstFlowReturn
theora_handle_header_packet (GstTheoraDec * dec, ogg_packet * packet)
{
  GstFlowReturn res;

  GST_DEBUG ("parsing header packet");

  if (theora_decode_header (&dec->info, &dec->comment, packet))
    goto header_read_error;

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  switch (packet->packet[0]) {
    case 0x81:
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      res = theora_handle_comment_packet (dec, packet);
      break;
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    case 0x82:
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      res = theora_handle_type_packet (dec, packet);
      break;
    default:
      /* ignore */
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      g_warning ("unknown theora header packet found");
    case 0x80:
      /* nothing special, this is the identification header */
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      res = GST_FLOW_OK;
      break;
  }
  return res;

  /* ERRORS */
header_read_error:
  {
    GST_ELEMENT_ERROR (GST_ELEMENT (dec), STREAM, DECODE,
        (NULL), ("couldn't read header packet"));
    return GST_FLOW_ERROR;
  }
}

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static GstFlowReturn
theora_dec_push (GstTheoraDec * dec, GstBuffer * buf)
{
  GstFlowReturn result;
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  GstClockTime outtime = GST_BUFFER_TIMESTAMP (buf);
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  if (outtime == GST_CLOCK_TIME_NONE) {
    dec->queued = g_list_append (dec->queued, buf);
    GST_DEBUG_OBJECT (dec, "queued buffer");
    result = GST_FLOW_OK;
  } else {
    if (dec->queued) {
      gint64 size;
      GList *walk;

      GST_DEBUG_OBJECT (dec, "first buffer with time %" GST_TIME_FORMAT,
          GST_TIME_ARGS (outtime));

      size = g_list_length (dec->queued);
      for (walk = dec->queued; walk; walk = g_list_next (walk)) {
        GstBuffer *buffer = GST_BUFFER (walk->data);
        GstClockTime time;

        time = outtime - ((size * GST_SECOND * dec->info.fps_denominator)
            / dec->info.fps_numerator);

        GST_DEBUG_OBJECT (dec, "patch buffer %lld %lld", size, time);
        GST_BUFFER_TIMESTAMP (buffer) = time;
        /* ignore the result */
        gst_pad_push (dec->srcpad, buffer);
        size--;
      }
      g_list_free (dec->queued);
      dec->queued = NULL;
    }
    result = gst_pad_push (dec->srcpad, buf);
  }
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  return result;
}

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static GstFlowReturn
theora_handle_data_packet (GstTheoraDec * dec, ogg_packet * packet,
    GstClockTime outtime)
{
  /* normal data packet */
  yuv_buffer yuv;
  GstBuffer *out;
  guint i;
  gboolean keyframe;
  gint out_size;
  gint stride_y, stride_uv;
  gint width, height;
  gint cwidth, cheight;
  GstFlowReturn result;

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  if (!dec->have_header)
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    goto not_initialized;

  /* the second most significant bit of the first data byte is cleared 
   * for keyframes */
  keyframe = (packet->packet[0] & 0x40) == 0;
  if (keyframe) {
    dec->need_keyframe = FALSE;
  } else if (dec->need_keyframe) {
    goto dropping;
  }

  if (theora_decode_packetin (&dec->state, packet))
    goto could_not_read;

  if (theora_decode_YUVout (&dec->state, &yuv) < 0)
    goto decode_error;

  if ((yuv.y_width != dec->info.width) || (yuv.y_height != dec->info.height))
    goto wrong_dimensions;


  width = dec->width;
  height = dec->height;
  cwidth = width / 2;
  cheight = height / 2;

  /* should get the stride from the caps, for now we round up to the nearest
   * multiple of 4 because some element needs it. chroma needs special 
   * treatment, see videotestsrc. */
  stride_y = ROUND_UP_4 (width);
  stride_uv = ROUND_UP_8 (width) / 2;

  out_size = stride_y * height + stride_uv * cheight * 2;

  /* now copy over the area contained in offset_x,offset_y,
   * frame_width, frame_height */
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  result =
      gst_pad_alloc_buffer_and_set_caps (dec->srcpad, GST_BUFFER_OFFSET_NONE,
      out_size, GST_PAD_CAPS (dec->srcpad), &out);
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  if (result != GST_FLOW_OK)
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    goto no_buffer;

  /* copy the visible region to the destination. This is actually pretty
   * complicated and gstreamer doesn't support all the needed caps to do this
   * correctly. For example, when we have an odd offset, we should only combine
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   * 1 row/column of luma samples with one chroma sample in colorspace conversion. 
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   * We compensate for this by adding a black border around the image when the
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   * offset or size is odd (see above).
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   */
  {
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    guchar *dest_y, *src_y;
    guchar *dest_u, *src_u;
    guchar *dest_v, *src_v;
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    dest_y = GST_BUFFER_DATA (out);
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    dest_u = dest_y + stride_y * height;
    dest_v = dest_u + stride_uv * cheight;

    src_y = yuv.y + dec->offset_x + dec->offset_y * yuv.y_stride;

    for (i = 0; i < height; i++) {
      memcpy (dest_y, src_y, width);

      dest_y += stride_y;
      src_y += yuv.y_stride;
    }

    src_u = yuv.u + dec->offset_x / 2 + dec->offset_y / 2 * yuv.uv_stride;
    src_v = yuv.v + dec->offset_x / 2 + dec->offset_y / 2 * yuv.uv_stride;

    for (i = 0; i < cheight; i++) {
      memcpy (dest_u, src_u, cwidth);
      memcpy (dest_v, src_v, cwidth);

      dest_u += stride_uv;
      src_u += yuv.uv_stride;
      dest_v += stride_uv;
      src_v += yuv.uv_stride;
    }
  }

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  GST_BUFFER_OFFSET (out) = dec->frame_nr;
  dec->frame_nr++;
  GST_BUFFER_OFFSET_END (out) = dec->frame_nr;
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  GST_BUFFER_DURATION (out) =
      GST_SECOND * ((gdouble) dec->info.fps_denominator) /
      dec->info.fps_numerator;
  GST_BUFFER_TIMESTAMP (out) = outtime;

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  result = theora_dec_push (dec, out);
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  return result;

  /* ERRORS */
not_initialized:
  {
    GST_ELEMENT_ERROR (GST_ELEMENT (dec), STREAM, DECODE,
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        (NULL), ("no header sent yet"));
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    return GST_FLOW_ERROR;
  }
dropping:
  {
    GST_WARNING_OBJECT (dec, "dropping frame because we need a keyframe");
    return GST_FLOW_OK;
  }
could_not_read:
  {
    GST_ELEMENT_ERROR (GST_ELEMENT (dec), STREAM, DECODE,
        (NULL), ("theora decoder did not read data packet"));
    return GST_FLOW_ERROR;
  }
decode_error:
  {
    GST_ELEMENT_ERROR (GST_ELEMENT (dec), STREAM, DECODE,
        (NULL), ("couldn't read out YUV image"));
    return GST_FLOW_ERROR;
  }
wrong_dimensions:
  {
    GST_ELEMENT_ERROR (GST_ELEMENT (dec), STREAM, DECODE,
        (NULL), ("dimensions of image do not match header"));
    return GST_FLOW_ERROR;
  }
no_buffer:
  {
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    return result;
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  }
}

static GstFlowReturn
theora_dec_chain (GstPad * pad, GstBuffer * buf)
{
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  GstTheoraDec *dec;
  ogg_packet packet;
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  GstFlowReturn result = GST_FLOW_OK;
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  dec = GST_THEORA_DEC (gst_pad_get_parent (pad));
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  /* make ogg_packet out of the buffer */
  packet.packet = GST_BUFFER_DATA (buf);
  packet.bytes = GST_BUFFER_SIZE (buf);
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  packet.granulepos = GST_BUFFER_OFFSET_END (buf);
  packet.packetno = 0;          /* we don't really care */
  packet.b_o_s = dec->have_header ? 0 : 1;
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  packet.e_o_s = 0;
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  if (dec->have_header) {
    if (packet.granulepos != -1) {
      dec->granulepos = packet.granulepos;
      dec->last_timestamp =
          GST_SECOND * theora_granule_time (&dec->state, packet.granulepos);
    } else if (dec->last_timestamp != -1) {
      dec->last_timestamp +=
          (GST_SECOND * dec->info.fps_denominator) / dec->info.fps_numerator;
    }
  } else {
    dec->last_timestamp = -1;
  }

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  GST_DEBUG_OBJECT (dec, "header=%d packetno=%lld, outtime=%" GST_TIME_FORMAT,
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      packet.packet[0], packet.packetno, GST_TIME_ARGS (dec->last_timestamp));
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  /* switch depending on packet type */
  if (packet.packet[0] & 0x80) {
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    if (dec->have_header) {
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      GST_WARNING_OBJECT (GST_OBJECT (dec), "Ignoring header");
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      goto done;
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    }
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    result = theora_handle_header_packet (dec, &packet);
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  } else {
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    result = theora_handle_data_packet (dec, &packet, dec->last_timestamp);
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  }
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done:
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  _inc_granulepos (dec);
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  gst_object_unref (dec);

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  gst_buffer_unref (buf);
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  return result;
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}

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static GstStateChangeReturn
theora_dec_change_state (GstElement * element, GstStateChange transition)
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{
  GstTheoraDec *dec = GST_THEORA_DEC (element);
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  GstStateChangeReturn ret;
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  switch (transition) {
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    case GST_STATE_CHANGE_NULL_TO_READY:
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      break;
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    case GST_STATE_CHANGE_READY_TO_PAUSED:
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      theora_info_init (&dec->info);
      theora_comment_init (&dec->comment);
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      dec->have_header = FALSE;
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      dec->need_keyframe = TRUE;
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      dec->last_timestamp = -1;
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      dec->granulepos = -1;
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      break;
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    case GST_STATE_CHANGE_PAUSED_TO_PLAYING:
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      break;
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    default:
      break;
  }

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  ret = parent_class->change_state (element, transition);