1. 02 Nov, 2017 1 commit
    • Greg Kroah-Hartman's avatar
      License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license · b2441318
      Greg Kroah-Hartman authored
      Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
      makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.
      
      By default all files without license information are under the default
      license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.
      
      Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
      SPDX license identifier.  The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
      shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.
      
      This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
      Philippe Ombredanne.
      
      How this work was done:
      
      Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
      the use cases:
       - file had no licensing information it it.
       - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
       - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,
      
      Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
      where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
      had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.
      
      The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
      a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
      output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
      tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne.  Philippe prepared the
      base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.
      
      The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
      assessed.  Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
      results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
      to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
      immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
      Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
       - Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
       - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
         lines of source
       - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5
         lines).
      
      All documentation files were explicitly excluded.
      
      The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
      identifiers to apply.
      
       - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
         considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
         COPYING file license applied.
      
         For non */uapi/* files that summary was:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|-------
         GPL-2.0                                              11139
      
         and resulted in the first patch in this series.
      
         If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
         Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0".  Results of that was:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|-------
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        930
      
         and resulted in the second patch in this series.
      
       - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
         of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
         any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
         it (per prior point).  Results summary:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|------
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                       270
         GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      169
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause)    21
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    17
         LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      15
         GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       14
         ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    5
         LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       4
         LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT)              3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT)             1
      
         and that resulted in the third patch in this series.
      
       - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
         the concluded license(s).
      
       - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
         license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
         licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.
      
       - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
         resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
         which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).
      
       - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
         confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
       - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
         the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
         in time.
      
      In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
      spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
      source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
      by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
      Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
      FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
      disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights.  The
      Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
      they are related.
      
      Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
      for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
      files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
      in about 15000 files.
      
      In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
      copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
      correct identifier.
      
      Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
      inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
      version early this week with:
       - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
         license ids and scores
       - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
         files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
       - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
         was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
         SPDX license was correct
      
      This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction.  This
      worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
      different types of files to be modified.
      
      These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg.  Thomas wrote a script to
      parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
      format that the file expected.  This script was further refined by Greg
      based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
      distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
      comment types.)  Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
      generate the patches.
      Reviewed-by: default avatarKate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarPhilippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarThomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      b2441318
  2. 07 Aug, 2015 1 commit
  3. 27 Aug, 2014 2 commits
    • Bertrand Jacquin's avatar
      kbuild: handle module compression while running 'make modules_install'. · beb50df3
      Bertrand Jacquin authored
      Since module-init-tools (gzip) and kmod (gzip and xz) support compressed
      modules, it could be useful to include a support for compressing modules
      right after having them installed. Doing this in kbuild instead of per
      distro can permit to make this kind of usage more generic.
      
      This patch add a Kconfig entry to "Enable loadable module support" menu
      and let you choose to compress using gzip (default) or xz.
      
      Both gzip and xz does not used any extra -[1-9] option since Andi Kleen
      and Rusty Russell prove no gain is made using them. gzip is called with -n
      argument to avoid storing original filename inside compressed file, that
      way we can save some more bytes.
      
      On a v3.16 kernel, 'make allmodconfig' generated 4680 modules for a
      total of 378MB (no strip, no sign, no compress), the following table
      shows observed disk space gain based on the allmodconfig .config :
      
             |           time                |
             +-------------+-----------------+
             | manual .ko  |       make      | size | percent
             | compression | modules_install |      | gain
             +-------------+-----------------+------+--------
        -    |             |     18.61s      | 378M |
        GZIP |   3m16s     |     3m37s       | 102M | 73.41%
        XZ   |   5m22s     |     5m39s       |  77M | 79.83%
      
      The gain for restricted environnement seems to be interesting while
      uncompress can be time consuming but happens only while loading a module,
      that is generally done only once.
      
      This is fully compatible with signed modules while the signed module is
      compressed. module-init-tools or kmod handles decompression
      and provide to other layer the uncompressed but signed payload.
      Reviewed-by: default avatarWilly Tarreau <w@1wt.eu>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarBertrand Jacquin <beber@meleeweb.net>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarRusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au>
      beb50df3
    • Bertrand Jacquin's avatar
      modinst: wrap long lines in order to enhance cmd_modules_install · 40e42f6a
      Bertrand Jacquin authored
      Note: shouldn't we use 'install -D $(2)/$@ $@' instead of mkdir
      and cp ?
      Reviewed-by: default avatarWilly Tarreau <w@1wt.eu>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarBertrand Jacquin <beber@meleeweb.net>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarRusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au>
      40e42f6a
  4. 19 Jun, 2014 1 commit
  5. 06 Nov, 2012 1 commit
  6. 19 Oct, 2012 1 commit
  7. 31 Aug, 2012 1 commit
    • 이건호's avatar
      scripts/Makefile.modpost: error in finding modules from .mod files. · ef591a55
      이건호 authored
      This error may happen when the user's id or path includes .ko string.
      For example, user's id is xxx.ko and building test.ko module,
      the test.mod file lists ko name and all object files.
         /home/xxx.ko/kernel_dev/device/drivers/test.ko
         /home/xxx.ko/kernel_dev/device/drivers/test_main.o
      /home/xxx.ko/kernel_dev/device/drivers/test_io.o ...
      Current Makefile.modpost and Makefile.modinst find and list up not
      only test.ko but also other object files.
      because all of object file's path includes .ko string.
      This is a patch to fix it.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGunho Lee <gunho.lee@lge.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarMichal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz>
      ef591a55
  8. 14 Jan, 2009 1 commit
  9. 19 Dec, 2008 1 commit
    • Jan Beulich's avatar
      kbuild: strip generated symbols from *.ko · ad7a953c
      Jan Beulich authored
      This patch changes the way __crc_ symbols are being resolved from
      using ld to do so to using the assembler, thus allowing these symbols
      to be marked local (the linker creates then as global ones) and hence
      allow stripping (for modules) or ignoring (for vmlinux) them. While at
      this, also strip other generated symbols during module installation.
      
      One potentially debatable point is the handling of the flags passeed
      to gcc when translating the intermediate assembly file into an object:
      passing $(c_flags) unchanged doesn't work as gcc passes --gdwarf2 to
      gas whenever is sees any -g* option, even for -g0, and despite the
      fact that the compiler would have already produced all necessary debug
      info in the C->assembly translation phase. I took the approach of just
      filtering out all -g* options, but an alternative to such negative
      filtering might be to have a positive filter which might, in the ideal
      case allow just all the -Wa,* options to pass through.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJan Beulich <jbeulich@novell.com>
      Signed-off-by: Sam Ravnborg's avatarSam Ravnborg <sam@ravnborg.org>
      ad7a953c
  10. 28 Jan, 2008 1 commit
    • Sam Ravnborg's avatar
      kbuild: fix installing external modules · 9b213118
      Sam Ravnborg authored
      Eric Sandeen <sandeen@redhat.com> reported:
        Installing external modules is supposed to put them in some path
        under /lib/modules/<version>/extra/subdir/, but this change:
        http://linux.bkbits.net:8080/linux-2.6/?PAGE=cset&REV=1.1982.9.23
        makes them go under /lib/modules/<version>/extrasubdir
      
       (for example, make M=fs/ext3 modules_install puts ext3.ko in
       /lib/modules/<version>/extrafs/ext3.ko)
      
      This was the case only when specifying a trailing slash to M=..
      
      Fixed by removing trailing slash if present so
      we correctly match dir part of target.
      Signed-off-by: Sam Ravnborg's avatarSam Ravnborg <sam@ravnborg.org>
      Cc: Eric Sandeen <sandeen@redhat.com>
      9b213118
  11. 24 Jun, 2006 1 commit
    • Theodore Ts'o's avatar
      kbuild: add option for stripping modules while installing them · ac031f26
      Theodore Ts'o authored
      Add option for stripping modules while installing them.
      
      This function adds support for stripping modules while they are being
      installed.  CONFIG_DEBUG_KERNEL (which will probably become more
      popular as developers use kdump) causes the size of the installed
      modules to grow by a factor of 9 or so.
      
      Some kernel package systems solve this problem by stripping the debug
      information from /lib/modules after running "make modules_install",
      but that may not work for people who are installing directly into
      /lib/modules --- root partitions that were sized to handle 16 megs
      worth of modules may not be quite so happy with 145 megs of modules,
      so the "make modules_install" never succeeds.
      
      This patch allows such users to request modules_install to strip the
      modules as they are installed.
      Signed-off-by: default avatar"Theodore Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu>
      Signed-off-by: Sam Ravnborg's avatarSam Ravnborg <sam@ravnborg.org>
      ac031f26
  12. 05 Mar, 2006 1 commit
  13. 25 Jul, 2005 1 commit
    • Sam Ravnborg's avatar
      kbuild: introduce Kbuild.include · 8ec4b4ff
      Sam Ravnborg authored
      Kbuild.include is a placeholder for definitions originally present in
      both the top-level Makefile and scripts/Makefile.build.
      There were a slight difference in the filechk definition, so the most videly
      used version was kept and usr/Makefile was adopted for this syntax.
      Signed-off-by: Sam Ravnborg's avatarSam Ravnborg <sam@ravnborg.org>
      ---
      8ec4b4ff
  14. 16 Apr, 2005 1 commit
    • Linus Torvalds's avatar
      Linux-2.6.12-rc2 · 1da177e4
      Linus Torvalds authored
      Initial git repository build. I'm not bothering with the full history,
      even though we have it. We can create a separate "historical" git
      archive of that later if we want to, and in the meantime it's about
      3.2GB when imported into git - space that would just make the early
      git days unnecessarily complicated, when we don't have a lot of good
      infrastructure for it.
      
      Let it rip!
      1da177e4