Commit 9c296b46 authored by Jonathan Corbet's avatar Jonathan Corbet

docs: sphinxify kmemcheck.txt and move to dev-tools

Cc: Vegard Nossum <vegardno@ifi.uio.no>
Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: default avatarJonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
parent ca90a7a3
GETTING STARTED WITH KMEMCHECK
Getting started with kmemcheck
==============================
Vegard Nossum <vegardno@ifi.uio.no>
Contents
========
0. Introduction
1. Downloading
2. Configuring and compiling
3. How to use
3.1. Booting
3.2. Run-time enable/disable
3.3. Debugging
3.4. Annotating false positives
4. Reporting errors
5. Technical description
0. Introduction
===============
Introduction
------------
kmemcheck is a debugging feature for the Linux Kernel. More specifically, it
is a dynamic checker that detects and warns about some uses of uninitialized
......@@ -40,21 +26,20 @@ as much memory as normal. For this reason, kmemcheck is strictly a debugging
feature.
1. Downloading
==============
Downloading
-----------
As of version 2.6.31-rc1, kmemcheck is included in the mainline kernel.
2. Configuring and compiling
============================
Configuring and compiling
-------------------------
kmemcheck only works for the x86 (both 32- and 64-bit) platform. A number of
configuration variables must have specific settings in order for the kmemcheck
menu to even appear in "menuconfig". These are:
o CONFIG_CC_OPTIMIZE_FOR_SIZE=n
- ``CONFIG_CC_OPTIMIZE_FOR_SIZE=n``
This option is located under "General setup" / "Optimize for size".
Without this, gcc will use certain optimizations that usually lead to
......@@ -63,13 +48,11 @@ menu to even appear in "menuconfig". These are:
16 bits. kmemcheck sees only the 32-bit load, and may trigger a
warning for the upper 16 bits (if they're uninitialized).
o CONFIG_SLAB=y or CONFIG_SLUB=y
- ``CONFIG_SLAB=y`` or ``CONFIG_SLUB=y``
This option is located under "General setup" / "Choose SLAB
allocator".
o CONFIG_FUNCTION_TRACER=n
- ``CONFIG_FUNCTION_TRACER=n``
This option is located under "Kernel hacking" / "Tracers" / "Kernel
Function Tracer"
......@@ -80,12 +63,11 @@ menu to even appear in "menuconfig". These are:
modifies memory that was tracked by kmemcheck, the result is an
endless recursive page fault.
o CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC=n
- ``CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC=n``
This option is located under "Kernel hacking" / "Memory Debugging"
/ "Debug page memory allocations".
In addition, I highly recommend turning on CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO=y. This is also
In addition, I highly recommend turning on ``CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO=y``. This is also
located under "Kernel hacking". With this, you will be able to get line number
information from the kmemcheck warnings, which is extremely valuable in
debugging a problem. This option is not mandatory, however, because it slows
......@@ -95,12 +77,10 @@ Now the kmemcheck menu should be visible (under "Kernel hacking" / "Memory
Debugging" / "kmemcheck: trap use of uninitialized memory"). Here follows
a description of the kmemcheck configuration variables:
o CONFIG_KMEMCHECK
- ``CONFIG_KMEMCHECK``
This must be enabled in order to use kmemcheck at all...
o CONFIG_KMEMCHECK_[DISABLED | ENABLED | ONESHOT]_BY_DEFAULT
- ``CONFIG_KMEMCHECK_``[``DISABLED`` | ``ENABLED`` | ``ONESHOT``]``_BY_DEFAULT``
This option controls the status of kmemcheck at boot-time. "Enabled"
will enable kmemcheck right from the start, "disabled" will boot the
kernel as normal (but with the kmemcheck code compiled in, so it can
......@@ -125,8 +105,7 @@ a description of the kmemcheck configuration variables:
time overhead is not incurred, and the kernel will be almost as fast
as normal.
o CONFIG_KMEMCHECK_QUEUE_SIZE
- ``CONFIG_KMEMCHECK_QUEUE_SIZE``
Select the maximum number of error reports to store in an internal
(fixed-size) buffer. Since errors can occur virtually anywhere and in
any context, we need a temporary storage area which is guaranteed not
......@@ -147,8 +126,7 @@ a description of the kmemcheck configuration variables:
will get lost in that way instead. Try setting this to 10 or so on
such a setup.
o CONFIG_KMEMCHECK_SHADOW_COPY_SHIFT
- ``CONFIG_KMEMCHECK_SHADOW_COPY_SHIFT``
Select the number of shadow bytes to save along with each entry of the
error-report queue. These bytes indicate what parts of an allocation
are initialized, uninitialized, etc. and will be displayed when an
......@@ -161,8 +139,7 @@ a description of the kmemcheck configuration variables:
The default value should be fine for debugging most problems. It also
fits nicely within 80 columns.
o CONFIG_KMEMCHECK_PARTIAL_OK
- ``CONFIG_KMEMCHECK_PARTIAL_OK``
This option (when enabled) works around certain GCC optimizations that
produce 32-bit reads from 16-bit variables where the upper 16 bits are
thrown away afterwards.
......@@ -171,8 +148,7 @@ a description of the kmemcheck configuration variables:
some real errors, but disabling it would probably produce a lot of
false positives.
o CONFIG_KMEMCHECK_BITOPS_OK
- ``CONFIG_KMEMCHECK_BITOPS_OK``
This option silences warnings that would be generated for bit-field
accesses where not all the bits are initialized at the same time. This
may also hide some real bugs.
......@@ -184,36 +160,36 @@ a description of the kmemcheck configuration variables:
Now compile the kernel as usual.
3. How to use
=============
How to use
----------
3.1. Booting
============
Booting
~~~~~~~
First some information about the command-line options. There is only one
option specific to kmemcheck, and this is called "kmemcheck". It can be used
to override the default mode as chosen by the CONFIG_KMEMCHECK_*_BY_DEFAULT
to override the default mode as chosen by the ``CONFIG_KMEMCHECK_*_BY_DEFAULT``
option. Its possible settings are:
o kmemcheck=0 (disabled)
o kmemcheck=1 (enabled)
o kmemcheck=2 (one-shot mode)
- ``kmemcheck=0`` (disabled)
- ``kmemcheck=1`` (enabled)
- ``kmemcheck=2`` (one-shot mode)
If SLUB debugging has been enabled in the kernel, it may take precedence over
kmemcheck in such a way that the slab caches which are under SLUB debugging
will not be tracked by kmemcheck. In order to ensure that this doesn't happen
(even though it shouldn't by default), use SLUB's boot option "slub_debug",
like this: slub_debug=-
(even though it shouldn't by default), use SLUB's boot option ``slub_debug``,
like this: ``slub_debug=-``
In fact, this option may also be used for fine-grained control over SLUB vs.
kmemcheck. For example, if the command line includes "kmemcheck=1
slub_debug=,dentry", then SLUB debugging will be used only for the "dentry"
slab cache, and with kmemcheck tracking all the other caches. This is advanced
usage, however, and is not generally recommended.
kmemcheck. For example, if the command line includes
``kmemcheck=1 slub_debug=,dentry``, then SLUB debugging will be used only
for the "dentry" slab cache, and with kmemcheck tracking all the other
caches. This is advanced usage, however, and is not generally recommended.
3.2. Run-time enable/disable
============================
Run-time enable/disable
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
When the kernel has booted, it is possible to enable or disable kmemcheck at
run-time. WARNING: This feature is still experimental and may cause false
......@@ -221,36 +197,36 @@ positive warnings to appear. Therefore, try not to use this. If you find that
it doesn't work properly (e.g. you see an unreasonable amount of warnings), I
will be happy to take bug reports.
Use the file /proc/sys/kernel/kmemcheck for this purpose, e.g.:
Use the file ``/proc/sys/kernel/kmemcheck`` for this purpose, e.g.::
$ echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/kmemcheck # disables kmemcheck
The numbers are the same as for the kmemcheck= command-line option.
The numbers are the same as for the ``kmemcheck=`` command-line option.
3.3. Debugging
==============
Debugging
~~~~~~~~~
A typical report will look something like this:
A typical report will look something like this::
WARNING: kmemcheck: Caught 32-bit read from uninitialized memory (ffff88003e4a2024)
80000000000000000000000000000000000000000088ffff0000000000000000
WARNING: kmemcheck: Caught 32-bit read from uninitialized memory (ffff88003e4a2024)
80000000000000000000000000000000000000000088ffff0000000000000000
i i i i u u u u i i i i i i i i u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u
^
Pid: 1856, comm: ntpdate Not tainted 2.6.29-rc5 #264 945P-A
RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff8104ede8>] [<ffffffff8104ede8>] __dequeue_signal+0xc8/0x190
RSP: 0018:ffff88003cdf7d98 EFLAGS: 00210002
RAX: 0000000000000030 RBX: ffff88003d4ea968 RCX: 0000000000000009
RDX: ffff88003e5d6018 RSI: ffff88003e5d6024 RDI: ffff88003cdf7e84
RBP: ffff88003cdf7db8 R08: ffff88003e5d6000 R09: 0000000000000000
R10: 0000000000000080 R11: 0000000000000000 R12: 000000000000000e
R13: ffff88003cdf7e78 R14: ffff88003d530710 R15: ffff88003d5a98c8
FS: 0000000000000000(0000) GS:ffff880001982000(0063) knlGS:00000
CS: 0010 DS: 002b ES: 002b CR0: 0000000080050033
CR2: ffff88003f806ea0 CR3: 000000003c036000 CR4: 00000000000006a0
DR0: 0000000000000000 DR1: 0000000000000000 DR2: 0000000000000000
DR3: 0000000000000000 DR6: 00000000ffff4ff0 DR7: 0000000000000400
Pid: 1856, comm: ntpdate Not tainted 2.6.29-rc5 #264 945P-A
RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff8104ede8>] [<ffffffff8104ede8>] __dequeue_signal+0xc8/0x190
RSP: 0018:ffff88003cdf7d98 EFLAGS: 00210002
RAX: 0000000000000030 RBX: ffff88003d4ea968 RCX: 0000000000000009
RDX: ffff88003e5d6018 RSI: ffff88003e5d6024 RDI: ffff88003cdf7e84
RBP: ffff88003cdf7db8 R08: ffff88003e5d6000 R09: 0000000000000000
R10: 0000000000000080 R11: 0000000000000000 R12: 000000000000000e
R13: ffff88003cdf7e78 R14: ffff88003d530710 R15: ffff88003d5a98c8
FS: 0000000000000000(0000) GS:ffff880001982000(0063) knlGS:00000
CS: 0010 DS: 002b ES: 002b CR0: 0000000080050033
CR2: ffff88003f806ea0 CR3: 000000003c036000 CR4: 00000000000006a0
DR0: 0000000000000000 DR1: 0000000000000000 DR2: 0000000000000000
DR3: 0000000000000000 DR6: 00000000ffff4ff0 DR7: 0000000000000400
[<ffffffff8104f04e>] dequeue_signal+0x8e/0x170
[<ffffffff81050bd8>] get_signal_to_deliver+0x98/0x390
[<ffffffff8100b87d>] do_notify_resume+0xad/0x7d0
......@@ -261,8 +237,8 @@ The single most valuable information in this report is the RIP (or EIP on 32-
bit) value. This will help us pinpoint exactly which instruction that caused
the warning.
If your kernel was compiled with CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO=y, then all we have to do
is give this address to the addr2line program, like this:
If your kernel was compiled with ``CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO=y``, then all we have to do
is give this address to the addr2line program, like this::
$ addr2line -e vmlinux -i ffffffff8104ede8
arch/x86/include/asm/string_64.h:12
......@@ -270,71 +246,73 @@ is give this address to the addr2line program, like this:
kernel/signal.c:380
kernel/signal.c:410
The "-e vmlinux" tells addr2line which file to look in. IMPORTANT: This must
be the vmlinux of the kernel that produced the warning in the first place! If
not, the line number information will almost certainly be wrong.
The "-i" tells addr2line to also print the line numbers of inlined functions.
In this case, the flag was very important, because otherwise, it would only
have printed the first line, which is just a call to memcpy(), which could be
called from a thousand places in the kernel, and is therefore not very useful.
These inlined functions would not show up in the stack trace above, simply
because the kernel doesn't load the extra debugging information. This
technique can of course be used with ordinary kernel oopses as well.
In this case, it's the caller of memcpy() that is interesting, and it can be
found in include/asm-generic/siginfo.h, line 287:
281 static inline void copy_siginfo(struct siginfo *to, struct siginfo *from)
282 {
283 if (from->si_code < 0)
284 memcpy(to, from, sizeof(*to));
285 else
286 /* _sigchld is currently the largest know union member */
287 memcpy(to, from, __ARCH_SI_PREAMBLE_SIZE + sizeof(from->_sifields._sigchld));
288 }
The "``-e vmlinux``" tells addr2line which file to look in. **IMPORTANT:**
This must be the vmlinux of the kernel that produced the warning in the
first place! If not, the line number information will almost certainly be
wrong.
The "``-i``" tells addr2line to also print the line numbers of inlined
functions. In this case, the flag was very important, because otherwise,
it would only have printed the first line, which is just a call to
``memcpy()``, which could be called from a thousand places in the kernel, and
is therefore not very useful. These inlined functions would not show up in
the stack trace above, simply because the kernel doesn't load the extra
debugging information. This technique can of course be used with ordinary
kernel oopses as well.
In this case, it's the caller of ``memcpy()`` that is interesting, and it can be
found in ``include/asm-generic/siginfo.h``, line 287::
281 static inline void copy_siginfo(struct siginfo *to, struct siginfo *from)
282 {
283 if (from->si_code < 0)
284 memcpy(to, from, sizeof(*to));
285 else
286 /* _sigchld is currently the largest know union member */
287 memcpy(to, from, __ARCH_SI_PREAMBLE_SIZE + sizeof(from->_sifields._sigchld));
288 }
Since this was a read (kmemcheck usually warns about reads only, though it can
warn about writes to unallocated or freed memory as well), it was probably the
"from" argument which contained some uninitialized bytes. Following the chain
of calls, we move upwards to see where "from" was allocated or initialized,
kernel/signal.c, line 380:
359 static void collect_signal(int sig, struct sigpending *list, siginfo_t *info)
360 {
...
367 list_for_each_entry(q, &list->list, list) {
368 if (q->info.si_signo == sig) {
369 if (first)
370 goto still_pending;
371 first = q;
...
377 if (first) {
378 still_pending:
379 list_del_init(&first->list);
380 copy_siginfo(info, &first->info);
381 __sigqueue_free(first);
...
392 }
393 }
Here, it is &first->info that is being passed on to copy_siginfo(). The
variable "first" was found on a list -- passed in as the second argument to
collect_signal(). We continue our journey through the stack, to figure out
where the item on "list" was allocated or initialized. We move to line 410:
395 static int __dequeue_signal(struct sigpending *pending, sigset_t *mask,
396 siginfo_t *info)
397 {
...
410 collect_signal(sig, pending, info);
...
414 }
Now we need to follow the "pending" pointer, since that is being passed on to
collect_signal() as "list". At this point, we've run out of lines from the
``kernel/signal.c``, line 380::
359 static void collect_signal(int sig, struct sigpending *list, siginfo_t *info)
360 {
...
367 list_for_each_entry(q, &list->list, list) {
368 if (q->info.si_signo == sig) {
369 if (first)
370 goto still_pending;
371 first = q;
...
377 if (first) {
378 still_pending:
379 list_del_init(&first->list);
380 copy_siginfo(info, &first->info);
381 __sigqueue_free(first);
...
392 }
393 }
Here, it is ``&first->info`` that is being passed on to ``copy_siginfo()``. The
variable ``first`` was found on a list -- passed in as the second argument to
``collect_signal()``. We continue our journey through the stack, to figure out
where the item on "list" was allocated or initialized. We move to line 410::
395 static int __dequeue_signal(struct sigpending *pending, sigset_t *mask,
396 siginfo_t *info)
397 {
...
410 collect_signal(sig, pending, info);
...
414 }
Now we need to follow the ``pending`` pointer, since that is being passed on to
``collect_signal()`` as ``list``. At this point, we've run out of lines from the
"addr2line" output. Not to worry, we just paste the next addresses from the
kmemcheck stack dump, i.e.:
kmemcheck stack dump, i.e.::
[<ffffffff8104f04e>] dequeue_signal+0x8e/0x170
[<ffffffff81050bd8>] get_signal_to_deliver+0x98/0x390
......@@ -351,36 +329,36 @@ kmemcheck stack dump, i.e.:
Remember that since these addresses were found on the stack and not as the
RIP value, they actually point to the _next_ instruction (they are return
addresses). This becomes obvious when we look at the code for line 446:
422 int dequeue_signal(struct task_struct *tsk, sigset_t *mask, siginfo_t *info)
423 {
...
431 signr = __dequeue_signal(&tsk->signal->shared_pending,
432 mask, info);
433 /*
434 * itimer signal ?
435 *
436 * itimers are process shared and we restart periodic
437 * itimers in the signal delivery path to prevent DoS
438 * attacks in the high resolution timer case. This is
439 * compliant with the old way of self restarting
440 * itimers, as the SIGALRM is a legacy signal and only
441 * queued once. Changing the restart behaviour to
442 * restart the timer in the signal dequeue path is
443 * reducing the timer noise on heavy loaded !highres
444 * systems too.
445 */
446 if (unlikely(signr == SIGALRM)) {
...
489 }
addresses). This becomes obvious when we look at the code for line 446::
422 int dequeue_signal(struct task_struct *tsk, sigset_t *mask, siginfo_t *info)
423 {
...
431 signr = __dequeue_signal(&tsk->signal->shared_pending,
432 mask, info);
433 /*
434 * itimer signal ?
435 *
436 * itimers are process shared and we restart periodic
437 * itimers in the signal delivery path to prevent DoS
438 * attacks in the high resolution timer case. This is
439 * compliant with the old way of self restarting
440 * itimers, as the SIGALRM is a legacy signal and only
441 * queued once. Changing the restart behaviour to
442 * restart the timer in the signal dequeue path is
443 * reducing the timer noise on heavy loaded !highres
444 * systems too.
445 */
446 if (unlikely(signr == SIGALRM)) {
...
489 }
So instead of looking at 446, we should be looking at 431, which is the line
that executes just before 446. Here we see that what we are looking for is
&tsk->signal->shared_pending.
``&tsk->signal->shared_pending``.
Our next task is now to figure out which function that puts items on this
"shared_pending" list. A crude, but efficient tool, is git grep:
``shared_pending`` list. A crude, but efficient tool, is ``git grep``::
$ git grep -n 'shared_pending' kernel/
...
......@@ -390,109 +368,110 @@ Our next task is now to figure out which function that puts items on this
There were more results, but none of them were related to list operations,
and these were the only assignments. We inspect the line numbers more closely
and find that this is indeed where items are being added to the list:
816 static int send_signal(int sig, struct siginfo *info, struct task_struct *t,
817 int group)
818 {
...
828 pending = group ? &t->signal->shared_pending : &t->pending;
...
851 q = __sigqueue_alloc(t, GFP_ATOMIC, (sig < SIGRTMIN &&
852 (is_si_special(info) ||
853 info->si_code >= 0)));
854 if (q) {
855 list_add_tail(&q->list, &pending->list);
...
890 }
and:
1309 int send_sigqueue(struct sigqueue *q, struct task_struct *t, int group)
1310 {
....
1339 pending = group ? &t->signal->shared_pending : &t->pending;
1340 list_add_tail(&q->list, &pending->list);
....
1347 }
In the first case, the list element we are looking for, "q", is being returned
from the function __sigqueue_alloc(), which looks like an allocation function.
Let's take a look at it:
187 static struct sigqueue *__sigqueue_alloc(struct task_struct *t, gfp_t flags,
188 int override_rlimit)
189 {
190 struct sigqueue *q = NULL;
191 struct user_struct *user;
192
193 /*
194 * We won't get problems with the target's UID changing under us
195 * because changing it requires RCU be used, and if t != current, the
196 * caller must be holding the RCU readlock (by way of a spinlock) and
197 * we use RCU protection here
198 */
199 user = get_uid(__task_cred(t)->user);
200 atomic_inc(&user->sigpending);
201 if (override_rlimit ||
202 atomic_read(&user->sigpending) <=
203 t->signal->rlim[RLIMIT_SIGPENDING].rlim_cur)
204 q = kmem_cache_alloc(sigqueue_cachep, flags);
205 if (unlikely(q == NULL)) {
206 atomic_dec(&user->sigpending);
207 free_uid(user);
208 } else {
209 INIT_LIST_HEAD(&q->list);
210 q->flags = 0;
211 q->user = user;
212 }
213
214 return q;
215 }
We see that this function initializes q->list, q->flags, and q->user. It seems
that now is the time to look at the definition of "struct sigqueue", e.g.:
14 struct sigqueue {
15 struct list_head list;
16 int flags;
17 siginfo_t info;
18 struct user_struct *user;
19 };
And, you might remember, it was a memcpy() on &first->info that caused the
warning, so this makes perfect sense. It also seems reasonable to assume that
it is the caller of __sigqueue_alloc() that has the responsibility of filling
out (initializing) this member.
and find that this is indeed where items are being added to the list::
816 static int send_signal(int sig, struct siginfo *info, struct task_struct *t,
817 int group)
818 {
...
828 pending = group ? &t->signal->shared_pending : &t->pending;
...
851 q = __sigqueue_alloc(t, GFP_ATOMIC, (sig < SIGRTMIN &&
852 (is_si_special(info) ||
853 info->si_code >= 0)));
854 if (q) {
855 list_add_tail(&q->list, &pending->list);
...
890 }
and::
1309 int send_sigqueue(struct sigqueue *q, struct task_struct *t, int group)
1310 {
....
1339 pending = group ? &t->signal->shared_pending : &t->pending;
1340 list_add_tail(&q->list, &pending->list);
....
1347 }
In the first case, the list element we are looking for, ``q``, is being
returned from the function ``__sigqueue_alloc()``, which looks like an
allocation function. Let's take a look at it::
187 static struct sigqueue *__sigqueue_alloc(struct task_struct *t, gfp_t flags,
188 int override_rlimit)
189 {
190 struct sigqueue *q = NULL;
191 struct user_struct *user;
192
193 /*
194 * We won't get problems with the target's UID changing under us
195 * because changing it requires RCU be used, and if t != current, the
196 * caller must be holding the RCU readlock (by way of a spinlock) and
197 * we use RCU protection here
198 */
199 user = get_uid(__task_cred(t)->user);
200 atomic_inc(&user->sigpending);
201 if (override_rlimit ||
202 atomic_read(&user->sigpending) <=
203 t->signal->rlim[RLIMIT_SIGPENDING].rlim_cur)
204 q = kmem_cache_alloc(sigqueue_cachep, flags);
205 if (unlikely(q == NULL)) {
206 atomic_dec(&user->sigpending);
207 free_uid(user);
208 } else {
209 INIT_LIST_HEAD(&q->list);
210 q->flags = 0;
211 q->user = user;
212 }
213
214 return q;
215 }
We see that this function initializes ``q->list``, ``q->flags``, and
``q->user``. It seems that now is the time to look at the definition of
``struct sigqueue``, e.g.::
14 struct sigqueue {
15 struct list_head list;
16 int flags;
17 siginfo_t info;
18 struct user_struct *user;
19 };
And, you might remember, it was a ``memcpy()`` on ``&first->info`` that
caused the warning, so this makes perfect sense. It also seems reasonable
to assume that it is the caller of ``__sigqueue_alloc()`` that has the
responsibility of filling out (initializing) this member.
But just which fields of the struct were uninitialized? Let's look at
kmemcheck's report again:
kmemcheck's report again::
WARNING: kmemcheck: Caught 32-bit read from uninitialized memory (ffff88003e4a2024)
80000000000000000000000000000000000000000088ffff0000000000000000
WARNING: kmemcheck: Caught 32-bit read from uninitialized memory (ffff88003e4a2024)
80000000000000000000000000000000000000000088ffff0000000000000000
i i i i u u u u i i i i i i i i u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u
^
These first two lines are the memory dump of the memory object itself, and the
shadow bytemap, respectively. The memory object itself is in this case
&first->info. Just beware that the start of this dump is NOT the start of the
object itself! The position of the caret (^) corresponds with the address of
the read (ffff88003e4a2024).
These first two lines are the memory dump of the memory object itself, and
the shadow bytemap, respectively. The memory object itself is in this case
``&first->info``. Just beware that the start of this dump is NOT the start
of the object itself! The position of the caret (^) corresponds with the
address of the read (ffff88003e4a2024).
The shadow bytemap dump legend is as follows:
i - initialized
u - uninitialized
a - unallocated (memory has been allocated by the slab layer, but has not
- i: initialized
- u: uninitialized
- a: unallocated (memory has been allocated by the slab layer, but has not
yet been handed off to anybody)
f - freed (memory has been allocated by the slab layer, but has been freed
- f: freed (memory has been allocated by the slab layer, but has been freed
by the previous owner)
In order to figure out where (relative to the start of the object) the
uninitialized memory was located, we have to look at the disassembly. For
that, we'll need the RIP address again:
that, we'll need the RIP address again::
RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff8104ede8>] [<ffffffff8104ede8>] __dequeue_signal+0xc8/0x190
RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff8104ede8>] [<ffffffff8104ede8>] __dequeue_signal+0xc8/0x190
$ objdump -d --no-show-raw-insn vmlinux | grep -C 8 ffffffff8104ede8:
ffffffff8104edc8: mov %r8,0x8(%r8)
......@@ -513,36 +492,36 @@ RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff8104ede8>] [<ffffffff8104ede8>] __dequeue_signal+0xc8/0x190
ffffffff8104edf5: mov %r8,%rdi
ffffffff8104edf8: callq ffffffff8104de60 <__sigqueue_free>
As expected, it's the "rep movsl" instruction from the memcpy() that causes
the warning. We know about REP MOVSL that it uses the register RCX to count
the number of remaining iterations. By taking a look at the register dump
again (from the kmemcheck report), we can figure out how many bytes were left
to copy:
RAX: 0000000000000030 RBX: ffff88003d4ea968 RCX: 0000000000000009
By looking at the disassembly, we also see that %ecx is being loaded with the
value $0xc just before (ffffffff8104edd8), so we are very lucky. Keep in mind
that this is the number of iterations, not bytes. And since this is a "long"
operation, we need to multiply by 4 to get the number of bytes. So this means
that the uninitialized value was encountered at 4 * (0xc - 0x9) = 12 bytes
from the start of the object.
We can now try to figure out which field of the "struct siginfo" that was not
initialized. This is the beginning of the struct:
40 typedef struct siginfo {
41 int si_signo;
42 int si_errno;
43 int si_code;
44
45 union {
..
92 } _sifields;
93 } siginfo_t;
As expected, it's the "``rep movsl``" instruction from the ``memcpy()``
that causes the warning. We know about ``REP MOVSL`` that it uses the register
``RCX`` to count the number of remaining iterations. By taking a look at the
register dump again (from the kmemcheck report), we can figure out how many
bytes were left to copy::
RAX: 0000000000000030 RBX: ffff88003d4ea968 RCX: 0000000000000009
By looking at the disassembly, we also see that ``%ecx`` is being loaded
with the value ``$0xc`` just before (ffffffff8104edd8), so we are very
lucky. Keep in mind that this is the number of iterations, not bytes. And
since this is a "long" operation, we need to multiply by 4 to get the
number of bytes. So this means that the uninitialized value was encountered
at 4 * (0xc - 0x9) = 12 bytes from the start of the object.
We can now try to figure out which field of the "``struct siginfo``" that
was not initialized. This is the beginning of the struct::
40 typedef struct siginfo {
41 int si_signo;
42 int si_errno;
43 int si_code;
44
45 union {
..
92 } _sifields;
93 } siginfo_t;
On 64-bit, the int is 4 bytes long, so it must the union member that has
not been initialized. We can verify this using gdb:
not been initialized. We can verify this using gdb::
$ gdb vmlinux
...
......@@ -550,82 +529,83 @@ not been initialized. We can verify this using gdb:
$1 = (union {...} *) 0x10