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# Monado - XR Runtime (XRT)
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<!--
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Copyright 2018-2021, Collabora, Ltd.

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SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-4.0

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> * Main homepage and documentation: <https://monado.freedesktop.org/>
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> * Promotional homepage: <https://monado.dev>
> * Maintained at <https://gitlab.freedesktop.org/monado/monado>
> * Latest API documentation: <https://monado.pages.freedesktop.org/monado>
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> * Continuously-updated changelog of the default branch:
>   <https://monado.pages.freedesktop.org/monado/md__c_h_a_n_g_e_l_o_g.html>
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Monado is an open source XR runtime delivering immersive experiences such as VR
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and AR on mobile, PC/desktop, and any other device
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(because gosh darn people
come up with a lot of weird hardware).
Monado aims to be a complete and conforming implementation
of the OpenXR API made by Khronos.
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The project is primarily developed on GNU/Linux, but also runs on Android and Windows.
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"Monado" has no specific meaning and is just a name.

## Monado source tree

* `src/xrt/include` - headers that define the internal interfaces of Monado.
* `src/xrt/compositor` - code for doing distortion and driving the display hardware of a device.
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* `src/xrt/auxiliary` - utilities and other larger components.
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* `src/xrt/drivers` - hardware drivers.
* `src/xrt/state_trackers/oxr` - OpenXR API implementation.
* `src/xrt/targets` - glue code and build logic to produce final binaries.
* `src/external` - a small collection of external code and headers.

## Getting Started

Dependencies include:

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* [CMake][] 3.13 or newer (Note Ubuntu 18.04 only has 3.10)
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* Python 3.6 or newer
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* Vulkan headers and loader - Fedora package `vulkan-loader-devel`
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* OpenGL headers
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* Eigen3 - Debian/Ubuntu package 'libeigen3-dev'
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* glslangValidator - Debian/Ubuntu package `glslang-tools`, Fedora package `glslang`.
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* libusb
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* libudev - Fedora package `systemd-devel`
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* Video 4 Linux - Debian/Ubuntu package `libv4l-dev`.
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Optional (but recommended) dependencies:

* libxcb and xcb-xrandr development packages
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* [OpenHMD][] 0.3.0 or newer (found using pkg-config)
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Truly optional dependencies, useful for some drivers, app support, etc.:
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* Doxygen
* Wayland development packages
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* Xlib development packages
* libhidapi
* OpenCV
* libuvc
* ffmpeg
* libjpeg
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* libbluetooth
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Experimental Windows support requires the Vulkan SDK and also needs or works
best with the following vcpkg packages installed:

* pthreads eigen3 libusb hidapi zlib doxygen

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If you have a recent [vcpkg](https://vcpkg.io) installed and use the appropriate
CMake toolchain file, the vcpkg manifest in the Monado repository will instruct
vcpkg to locally install the dependencies automatically.

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Tested distributions that are fully compatible,
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on Intel (Vulkan only) and AMD graphics (Vulkan and OpenGL):
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* Ubuntu 18.10 (18.04 does not work)
* Debian 10 `buster`
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  * Up-to-date package lists can be found in our CI config file,
    `.gitlab-ci.yml`
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* Archlinux
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These distributions include recent-enough versions of all the
software to use direct mode,
without using any external, third-party, or backported
package sources.

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See also [Status of DRM Leases][drm-lease]
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for more details on specific packages, versions, and commits.

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Due to the lack of a OpenGL extension: GL_EXT_memory_object_fd on Intel's
OpenGL driver, only the AMD
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radeonsi driver and the proprietary NVIDIA driver will work for OpenGL OpenXR
clients. This is due to a requirement of the Compositor. Support status of the
extension can be found on the [mesamatrix website][mesamatrix-ext].

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### CMake

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Build process is similar to other CMake builds,
so something like the following will build it.

Go into the source directory, create a build directory,
and change into it.

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```bash
mkdir build
cd build
```
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Then, invoke [CMake to generate a project][cmake-generate].
Feel free to change the build type or generator ("Ninja" is fast and parallel) as you see fit.

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```bash
cmake .. -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug -G "Unix Makefiles"
```
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If you plan to install the runtime,
append something like `-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=~/.local`
to specify the root of the install directory.
(The default install prefix is `/usr/local`.)

To build, [the generic CMake build commands][cmake-build] below will work on all systems,
though you can manually invoke your build tool (`make`, `ninja`, etc.) if you prefer.
The first command builds the runtime and docs,
and the second, which is optional, installs the runtime under `${CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX}`.

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```bash
cmake --build .
cmake --build . --target install
```
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Alternately, if using Make, the following will build the runtime and docs, then install.
Replace `make` with `ninja` if you used the Ninja generator.

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```bash
make
make install
```
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Documentation can be browsed by opening `doc/html/index.html` in the build directory in a web browser.
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## Getting started using OpenXR with Monado

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This implements the [OpenXR][] API,
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so to do anything with it, you'll need an application
that uses OpenXR, along with the OpenXR loader.
The OpenXR loader is a glue library that connects OpenXR applications to OpenXR runtimes such as Monado
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It determines which runtime to use by looking for the config file `active_runtime.json` (either a symlink to
or a copy of a runtime manifest) in the usual XDG config paths
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and processes environment variables such as `XR_RUNTIME_JSON=/usr/share/openxr/0/openxr_monado.json`.
It can also insert OpenXR API Layers without the application or the runtime having to do it.

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You can use the `hello_xr` sample provided with the OpenXR SDK.
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The OpenXR loader can be pointed to a runtime json file in a nonstandard location with the environment variable `XR_RUNTIME_JSON`. Example:

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```bash
XR_RUNTIME_JSON=~/monado/build/openxr_monado-dev.json ./openxr-example
```
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For ease of development Monado creates a runtime manifest file in its build directory using an absolute path to the
Monado runtime in the build directory called `openxr_monado-dev.json`. Pointing `XR_RUNTIME_JSON` to this
file allows using Monado after building, without installing.
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Note that the loader can always find and load the runtime
if the path to the runtime library given in the json manifest is an absolute path,
but if a relative path like `libopenxr_monado.so.0` is given,
then `LD_LIBRARY_PATH` must include the directory that contains `libopenxr_monado.so.0`.
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The absolute path in `openxr_monado-dev.json` takes care of this for you.

Distribution packages for monado may provide the  "active runtime" file `/etc/xdg/openxr/1/active_runtime.json`.
In this case the loader will automatically use Monado when starting an OpenXR application. This global configuration
can be overridden on a per user basis by creating `~/.config/openxr/1/active_runtime.json`.
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## Direct mode

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On AMD and Intel GPUs our direct mode code requires a connected HMD to have
the `non-desktop` xrandr property set to 1.
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Only the most common HMDs have the needed quirks added to the linux kernel.

If you know that your HMD lacks the quirk you can run this command **before** or
after connecting the HMD and it will have it. Where `HDMI-A-0` is the xrandr
output name where you plug the HMD in.

```bash
xrandr --output HDMI-A-0 --prop --set non-desktop 1
```

You can verify that it stuck with the command.

```bash
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xrandr --prop
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```

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## Running Vulkan Validation

To run Monado with Vulkan validation the loader's layer functionality can be used.
```
VK_INSTANCE_LAYERS=VK_LAYER_KHRONOS_validation ./build/src/xrt/targets/service/monado-service
```
The same can be done when launching a Vulkan client.

If you want a backtrace to be produced at validation errors, create a `vk_layer_settings.txt`
file with the following content:
```
khronos_validation.debug_action = VK_DBG_LAYER_ACTION_LOG_MSG,VK_DBG_LAYER_ACTION_BREAK
khronos_validation.report_flags = error,warn
khronos_validation.log_filename = stdout
```

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## Coding style and formatting

[clang-format][] is used,
and a `.clang-format` config file is present in the repo
to allow your editor to use them.

To manually apply clang-format to every non-external source file in the tree,
run this command in the source dir with a `sh`-compatible shell
(Git for Windows git-bash should be OK):

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```bash
scripts/format-project.sh
```
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You can optionally put something like `CLANG_FORMAT=clang-format-7` before that command
if your clang-format binary isn't named `clang-format`.
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**Note that you'll typically prefer** to use something like `git clang-format`
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to re-format only your changes, in case version differences in tools result in overall format changes.
The CI "style" job currently runs on Debian Bullseye, so it has clang-format-11.
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[OpenHMD]: http://openhmd.net
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[drm-lease]: https://haagch.frickel.club/#!drmlease%2Emd
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[OpenXR]: https://khronos.org/openxr
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[clang-format]: https://releases.llvm.org/7.0.0/tools/clang/docs/ClangFormat.html
[cmake-build]: https://cmake.org/cmake/help/v3.12/manual/cmake.1.html#build-tool-mode
[cmake-generate]: https://cmake.org/cmake/help/v3.12/manual/cmake.1.html
[CMake]: https://cmake.org
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[mesamatrix-ext]: https://mesamatrix.net/#Version_ExtensionsthatarenotpartofanyOpenGLorOpenGLESversion
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## Contributing, Code of Conduct

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See `CONTRIBUTING.md` for details of contribution guidelines. GitLab Issues and
Merge Requests are the preferred wait to discuss problems, suggest enhancements,
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or submit changes for review. **In case of a security issue**, you should choose
the "confidential" option when using the GitLab issues page. For highest
security, you can send encrypted email (using GPG/OpenPGP) to Ryan Pavlik, with
the address below and the associated key on <https://keys.openpgp.org>.
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Please note that this project is released with a Contributor Code of Conduct.
By participating in this project you agree to abide by its terms.

We follow the standard freedesktop.org code of conduct,
available at <https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/CodeOfConduct/>,
which is based on the [Contributor Covenant](https://www.contributor-covenant.org).

Instances of abusive, harassing, or otherwise unacceptable behavior may be
reported by contacting:

* First-line project contacts:
  * Jakob Bornecrantz <jakob@collabora.com>
  * Ryan Pavlik <ryan.pavlik@collabora.com>
* freedesktop.org contacts: see most recent list at <https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/CodeOfConduct/>

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Code of Conduct section excerpt adapted from the
[Contributor Covenant](https://www.contributor-covenant.org), version 1.4.1,
available at
<https://www.contributor-covenant.org/version/1/4/code-of-conduct.html>, and
from the freedesktop.org-specific version of that code, available at
<https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/CodeOfConduct/>, used under CC-BY-4.0.