Commit 1ccc570f authored by George Kiagiadakis's avatar George Kiagiadakis
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docs: add full documentation on WirePlumber's configuration options and files

parent 0e98e415
# WirePlumber Configuration
WirePlumber is a heavily modular daemon. By itself, it doesn't do anything
except load the configured modules. All the rest of the logic is implemented
inside those modules.
Modular design ensures that it is possible to swap the implementation of
specific functionality without having to re-implement the rest of it, allowing
flexibility on target-sensitive parts, such as policy management and
making use of non-standard hardware.
## `wireplumber.conf`
This is WirePlumber's main configuration file. It is read at startup, before
connecting to the PipeWire daemon. Its purpose is to list all the modules
that need to be loaded by WirePlumber.
The format of this file is custom and resembles a script with commands:
```
# comment
command parameter1 parameter2 ...
```
Lines are executed in the order they appear and each of them executes an
action defined by the command. Lines starting with `#` are treated as comments
and ignored. Possible commands are:
* `add-spa-lib`
Associates SPA plugin names with the names of the SPA modules that they
can be loaded from. This takes 2 parameters: a name pattern and a library name.
This actually does not load the SPA plugin, it only calls `pw_core_add_spa_lib`
with the 2 paramteres given as arguments. As a consequence, it is safe to
call this even if the SPA module is not actually installed on the system.
Example:
```
add-spa-lib api.alsa.* alsa/libspa-alsa
```
In this example, we let `libpipewire` know that any SPA plugin whose name
starts with `api.alsa.` can be loaded from the SPA module
`alsa/libspa-alsa.so` (relative to the standard SPA modules directory).
* `load-pipewire-module`
Loads a `libpipewire` module. This is similar to the `load-module` commands
that would appear on `pipewire.conf`, the configuration file of the PipeWire
daemon.
This takes at least 1 parameter, the module name, and optionally any module
arguments, in the format that they would be given in `pipewire.conf`
Format:
```
load-pipewire-module module-name some-argument some-property=value
```
Example:
```
load-pipewire-module libpipewire-module-client-device
```
This command does not affect the PipeWire daemon by any means. It exists
simply to allow loading `libpipewire` modules in the pipewire core that
runs inside WirePlumber. This is usually useful to load pipewire protocol
extensions, so that you can export custom objects to PipeWire and other
clients.
* `load-module`
Loads a WirePlumber module. This takes 2 arguments and an optional parameter
block.
Format:
```
load-module ABI module-name {
"parameter": <"value">
}
```
The `ABI` parameter specifies the binary interface that WirePlumber shall use
to load this module. Currently, the only supported ABI is `C`. It exists to
allow future expansion, writing modules in other languages.
The `module-name` should be the name of the `.so` file without the `.so`
extension.
Optionally, if the `load-module` line ends with a `{`, the next lines up to
and including the next matching `}` are treated as a parameter block.
This block essentially is a
[GVariant](https://developer.gnome.org/glib/stable/glib-GVariant.html)
of type
[`a{sv}`](https://developer.gnome.org/glib/stable/gvariant-format-strings.html)
in the
[GVariant Text Format](https://developer.gnome.org/glib/stable/gvariant-text.html).
As a rule of thumb, parameter names in this block must always be strings
enclosed in double quotes, the separation between names and values is done
with the `:` character and values, regardless of their inner type, must always
be enclosed in `<` `>`.
Note that starting the parameter block on the next line is an error. The
starting brace (`{`) must always be on the `load-module` line.
Example:
```
load-module C libwireplumber-module-monitor {
"factory": <"api.alsa.enum.udev">,
"flags": <["use-adapter", "activate-devices"]>
}
```
Parameters are module-dependent. They are passed as a GVariant in the
module's initialization function and it is up to the module to interpret
their meaning. WirePlumber does not have any reserved parameters.
## Location of configuration files
WirePlumber's default location of its configuration files is determined at
compile time by the build system. Typically, it ends up being `/etc/wireplumber`.
In more detail, this is controlled by the `--sysconfdir` meson option. When
this is set to an absolute path, such as `/etc`, the location of the
configuration files is set to be `$sysconfdir/wireplumber`. When this is set
to a relative path, such as `etc`, then the installation prefix (`--prefix`)
is prepended to the path: `$prefix/$sysconfdir/wireplumber`
WirePlumber expects its `wireplumber.conf` to reside in that directory.
It is possible to override that at runtime by setting the
`WIREPLUMBER_CONFIG_FILE` environment variable:
```
WIREPLUMBER_CONFIG_FILE=src/config/wireplumber.conf wireplumber
```
It is also possible to override the whole configuration directory, so that
all other configuration files are being read from a different location as well,
by setting the `WIREPLUMBER_CONFIG_DIR` environment variable:
```
WIREPLUMBER_CONFIG_DIR=src/config wireplumber
```
## Location of modules
### WirePlumber modules
Like with configuration files, WirePlumber's default location of its modules is
determined at compile time by the build system. Typically, it ends up being
`/usr/lib/wireplumber-0.1` (or `/usr/lib/<arch-triplet>/wireplumber-0.1` on
multiarch systems)
In more detail, this is controlled by the `--libdir` meson option. When
this is set to an absolute path, such as `/lib`, the location of the
modules is set to be `$libdir/wireplumber-$abi_version`. When this is set
to a relative path, such as `lib`, then the installation prefix (`--prefix`)
is prepended to the path: `$prefix/$libdir/wireplumber-$abi_version`.
It is possible to override this directory at runtime by setting the
`WIREPLUMBER_MODULE_DIR` environment variable:
```
WIREPLUMBER_MODULE_DIR=build/modules wireplumber
```
### PipeWire and SPA modules
PipeWire and SPA modules are not loaded from the same location as WirePlumber's
modules. They are loaded from the location that PipeWire loads them.
It is also possible to override these locations by using environment variables:
`SPA_PLUGIN_DIR` and `PIPEWIRE_MODULE_DIR`. For more details, refer to
PipeWire's documentation.
# module-monitor
This module internally loads a SPA "device" object which enumerates all the
devices of a certain subsystem. Then it listens for "node" objects that are
being created by this device and exports them to PipeWire, after adjusting
their properties to provide enough context.
`module-monitor` does not read any configuration files, however, it supports
configuration through parameters defined in the main `wireplumber.conf`.
Possible parameters are:
* `factory`
A string that specifies the name of the SPA factory that loads the intial
"device" object.
Well-known factories are:
* "api.alsa.enum.udev" - Discovers ALSA devices via udev
* "api.v4l2.enum.udev" - Discovers V4L2 devices via udev
* "api.bluez5.enum.dbus" - Discovers bluetooth devices by calling bluez5 API via D-Bus
* `flags`
An array of strings that enable specific functionality in the monitor.
Possible flags include:
* "use-adapter"
Instructs the monitor to wrap all the created nodes in an "adapter"
SPA node, which provides automatic port splitting/merging and format/rate
conversion. This should be always enabled for audio device nodes.
* "local-nodes"
Instructs the monitor to run all the created nodes locally in in the
WirePlumber process, instead of the default behavior which is to create
the nodes in the PipeWire process. This is useful for bluetooth nodes,
which should run outside of the main PipeWire process for performance
reasons.
* "activate-devices"
Instructs the monitor to automatically set the device profile to "On",
so that the nodes are created. If not specified, the profile must be
set externally by the user before any nodes appear.
# module-config-endpoint
This module creates endpoints when WirePlumber detects new nodes in the
pipewire graph. Nodes themselves can be created in two ways:
Device modes are being created by "monitors" that watch a specific subsystem
(udev, bluez, etc...) for devices. Client nodes are being created by client
applications that try to stream to/from pipewire. As soon as a node is created,
the `module-config-endpoint` iterates through all the `.endpoint` configuration
files, in the order that is determined by the `match-node.priority` field,
and tries to match the node to the node description in the `[match-node]` table.
Upon a successful match, a new endpoint that follows the description in the
`[endpoint]` table is created.
## `*.endpoint` configuration files
These files are TOML v0.5 files. At the top-level, they must contain exactly
2 tables: `[match-node]` and `[endpoint]`
The `[match-node]` table contains properties that match a pipewire node that
exists on the graph. Possible fields of this table are:
* `priority`
Specifies the order in which the `.endpoint` files are being searched for a
match with a node. If a node matches the description of more than one
`.endpoint` file, the one with the highest priority wins.
The type of this field is unsigned integer. Bigger numbers mean higher
priority.
* `properties`
This is a TOML array of tables, where each table must contain two fields:
`name` and `value`, both being strings. Each table describes a match against
one of the pipewire properties of the node. For a successful node match, all
the described properties must match with the node.
The value of the `name` field must match exactly the name of the pipewire
property, while the value of the `value` field can contain '*' (wildcard)
and '?' (joker), adhering to the rules of the
[GLib g_pattern_match() function](https://developer.gnome.org/glib/stable/glib-Glob-style-pattern-matching.html).
When writing `.endpoint` files, a useful utility that you can use to list
device node properties is:
```
$ wireplumber-cli device-node-props
```
Another way to figure out some of these properties *for ALSA nodes* is
by parsing the aplay/arecord output. For example, this line from `aplay -l`
is interpreted as follows:
```
card 0: PCH [HDA Intel PCH], device 2: ALC3246 [ALC3246 Analog]
```
```
{ name = "api.alsa.path", value = "hw:0,2" },
{ name = "api.alsa.card", value = "0" },
{ name = "api.alsa.card.id", value = "PCH" },
{ name = "api.alsa.card.name", value = "HDA Intel PCH" },
{ name = "api.alsa.pcm.device", value = "2" },
{ name = "api.alsa.pcm.id", value = "ALC3246" },
{ name = "api.alsa.pcm.name", value = "ALC3246 Analog" },
```
The `[endpoint]` table contains a description of the endpoint to be created.
Possible fields of this table are:
* `type`
Required. Specifies the factory to be used for construction.
The only well-known factory at the moment of writing is: `pw-audio-softdsp-endpoint`
* `direction`
Required. Can be set to either `"sink"` or `"source"`. Specifies the
direction of the media flow of this endpoint. A `source` is an endpoint that
produces data (i.e. an audio capture device or a playback application) and
a `sink` is an endpoint that consumes data (audio playback device or
capture application).
* `name`
Optional. The name of the newly created endpoint. If not specified,
the endpoint is named after the node (from the `node.name` property of the node).
* `media_class`
Optional. A string that specifies an override for the `media.class` property
of the node. It can be used in special circumstances to declare that an
endpoint is dealing with a different type of data. This is only useful in
combination with a policy implementation that is aware of this media class.
* `priority`
Optional. An unsigned integer that specifies the order in which endpoints are
chosen to be the default of a specific device group. Possible device groups
are (determined by the endpoint's `media.class`):
* Audio/Sink
* Audio/Source
* Video/Source
Every time a new device endpoint is created, wireplumber picks the "default"
of the group that it belongs to, based on this priority number: the endpoint
with the biggest priority number wins.
If not specified, the default priority of an endpoint is equal to zero
(i.e. the lowest priority).
* `streams`
Optional. Specifies the name of a `.streams` file that contains the
descriptions of the streams to create for this endpoint. This currently
specific to the implementation of the `pw-audio-softdsp-endpoint` and might
change in the future.
## `*.streams` configuration files
These files contain lists of streams with their names and priorities.
They are TOML v0.5 files.
Each `.streams` file must contain exactly one top-level array of tables,
called `streams`. Every table must contain exactly two fields:
`name` and `priority`.
The `name` of each stream is used to create the streams on new endpoints.
The `priority` of each stream is being interpreted by the policy module to
apply restrictions on which app can use the stream at a given time.
# module-config-policy
This module implements demo-quality policy management that is partly driven
by configuration files. The configuration files that this module reads are
described below:
## `*.endpoint-link`
These files contain rules to link endpoints with each other.
They are TOML v0.5 files.
Endpoints are normally created by another module, such
as `module-config-endpoint` which is described above.
As soon as an endpoint is created, the `module-config-policy` uses the
information gathered from the `.endpoint-link` files in order to create a
link to another endpoint.
`.endpoint-link` files can contain 3 top-level tables:
* `[match-endpoint]`, required
* `[target-endpoint]`, optional
* `[endpoint-link]`, required
The `[match-endpoint]` table contains properties that match an endpoint that
exists on the graph. Possible fields of this table are:
* `priority`
Specifies the order in which the `.endpoint-link` files are being searched
for a match with an endpoint. If an endpoint matches the description of more
than one `.endpoint-link` file, the one with the highest priority wins.
The type of this field is unsigned integer. Bigger numbers mean higher
priority.
* `direction`
Required. Can be set to either `"sink"` or `"source"`. Specifies the
direction of the media flow of this endpoint. A `source` is an endpoint that
produces data (i.e. an audio capture device or a playback application) and
a `sink` is an endpoint that consumes data (audio playback device or
capture application).
* `name`
Optional. The name of the endpoint. It is possible to use wildcards here to
match only parts of the name.
* `media_class`
Optional. A string that specifies the `media.class` that the endpoint
must have in order to match.
* `properties`
This is a TOML array of tables, where each table must contain two fields:
`name` and `value`, both being strings. Each table describes a match against
one of the pipewire properties of the endpoint. For a successful endpoint
match, all the described properties must match with the endpoint.
The `[target-endpoint]` table contains properties that match an endpoint that
exists on the graph. The purpose of this table is to match a second endpoint
that the original matching endpoint from `[match-endpoint]` will be linked to.
If not specified, `module-config-policy` will look for the session "default"
endpoint for the type of media that the matching endpoint produces or consumes
and will use that as a target. Possible fields of this table are:
* `direction`, `name`, `media_class`, `properties`
All these fields are permitted and behave exactly as described above for the
`[match-endpoint]` table.
* `stream`
This field specifies a stream name that the link will use on the target
endpoint. If it is not specified, the stream name is acquired from the
`media.role` property of the matching endpoint. If specified, the value of
this field overrides the `media.role`.
The `[endpoint-link]` table specifies properties of the link. Possible fields
of this table are:
* `keep`
A boolean field. If set to true, the link is always kept active and ignores
policy rules regarding corking or stream priority. This link will also not
affect the rules for other links. For example, if a keep=true link is
activating a high priority stream, lower priority streams can still work on
the same target endpoint for links with keep=false.
WirePlumber Configuration
===
This directory contains WirePlumber's configuration files.
There are 4 kinds of files:
* `wireplumber.conf`
This file lists the modules that are being loaded by WirePlumber.
* `*.endpoint` files
These files contain rules to create endpoints when WirePlumber detects
new nodes in the pipewire graph. They are TOML v0.5 files.
The `00-stream-*.endpoint` files contain rules to create endpoints for the
nodes of the client applications that connect to pipewire. You should not
change or remove those unless you know what you are doing.
The rest of the `.endpoint` files contain rules to create endpoints for
ALSA device nodes.
TODO: more info
* `*.endpoint-link` files
These files contain rules to link endpoints with each other. They are part
of the policy module.
* `*.streams` files
These files contain a list of streams and their priorities.
The names of the streams are used to create streams on new endpoints.
In order to use a specific list of streams for a specific endpoint,
the relevant `.endpoint` file that contains the creation rule for that
endpoint must reference the `.streams` file.
The stream priorities are being interpreted by the policy module to apply
restrictions on which app can use the device at a given time.
The `media.role` of the application's stream is matched against the names
of the streams when applying policy.
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