fileio.c 33.7 KB
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/*-*- Mode: C; c-basic-offset: 8; indent-tabs-mode: nil -*-*/

/***
  This file is part of systemd.

  Copyright 2010 Lennart Poettering

  systemd is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
  under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or
  (at your option) any later version.

  systemd is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
  WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
  Lesser General Public License for more details.

  You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
  along with systemd; If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
***/

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#include "nm-sd-adapt.h"
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#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
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#include <unistd.h>
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#include "alloc-util.h"
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#include "ctype.h"
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#include "escape.h"
#include "fd-util.h"
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#include "fileio.h"
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#include "fs-util.h"
#include "hexdecoct.h"
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#include "log.h"
#include "macro.h"
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#include "parse-util.h"
#include "path-util.h"
#include "random-util.h"
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#if 0 /* NM_IGNORED */
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#include "stdio-util.h"
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#endif /* NM_IGNORED */
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#include "string-util.h"
#include "strv.h"
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#include "time-util.h"
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#include "umask-util.h"
#include "utf8.h"
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int write_string_stream(FILE *f, const char *line, bool enforce_newline) {

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        assert(f);
        assert(line);

        fputs(line, f);
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        if (enforce_newline && !endswith(line, "\n"))
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                fputc('\n', f);

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        return fflush_and_check(f);
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}

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static int write_string_file_atomic(const char *fn, const char *line, bool enforce_newline) {
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        _cleanup_fclose_ FILE *f = NULL;
        _cleanup_free_ char *p = NULL;
        int r;

        assert(fn);
        assert(line);

        r = fopen_temporary(fn, &f, &p);
        if (r < 0)
                return r;

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        (void) fchmod_umask(fileno(f), 0644);
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        r = write_string_stream(f, line, enforce_newline);
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        if (r >= 0) {
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                if (rename(p, fn) < 0)
                        r = -errno;
        }

        if (r < 0)
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                (void) unlink(p);
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        return r;
}

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int write_string_file(const char *fn, const char *line, WriteStringFileFlags flags) {
        _cleanup_fclose_ FILE *f = NULL;
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        int q, r;
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        assert(fn);
        assert(line);

        if (flags & WRITE_STRING_FILE_ATOMIC) {
                assert(flags & WRITE_STRING_FILE_CREATE);

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                r = write_string_file_atomic(fn, line, !(flags & WRITE_STRING_FILE_AVOID_NEWLINE));
                if (r < 0)
                        goto fail;

                return r;
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        }

        if (flags & WRITE_STRING_FILE_CREATE) {
                f = fopen(fn, "we");
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                if (!f) {
                        r = -errno;
                        goto fail;
                }
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        } else {
                int fd;

                /* We manually build our own version of fopen(..., "we") that
                 * works without O_CREAT */
                fd = open(fn, O_WRONLY|O_CLOEXEC|O_NOCTTY);
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                if (fd < 0) {
                        r = -errno;
                        goto fail;
                }
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                f = fdopen(fd, "we");
                if (!f) {
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                        r = -errno;
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                        safe_close(fd);
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                        goto fail;
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                }
        }

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        r = write_string_stream(f, line, !(flags & WRITE_STRING_FILE_AVOID_NEWLINE));
        if (r < 0)
                goto fail;

        return 0;

fail:
        if (!(flags & WRITE_STRING_FILE_VERIFY_ON_FAILURE))
                return r;

        f = safe_fclose(f);

        /* OK, the operation failed, but let's see if the right
         * contents in place already. If so, eat up the error. */

        q = verify_file(fn, line, !(flags & WRITE_STRING_FILE_AVOID_NEWLINE));
        if (q <= 0)
                return r;

        return 0;
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}

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int read_one_line_file(const char *fn, char **line) {
        _cleanup_fclose_ FILE *f = NULL;
        char t[LINE_MAX], *c;

        assert(fn);
        assert(line);

        f = fopen(fn, "re");
        if (!f)
                return -errno;

        if (!fgets(t, sizeof(t), f)) {

                if (ferror(f))
                        return errno ? -errno : -EIO;

                t[0] = 0;
        }

        c = strdup(t);
        if (!c)
                return -ENOMEM;
        truncate_nl(c);

        *line = c;
        return 0;
}

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int verify_file(const char *fn, const char *blob, bool accept_extra_nl) {
        _cleanup_fclose_ FILE *f = NULL;
        _cleanup_free_ char *buf = NULL;
        size_t l, k;
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        assert(fn);
        assert(blob);

        l = strlen(blob);

        if (accept_extra_nl && endswith(blob, "\n"))
                accept_extra_nl = false;

        buf = malloc(l + accept_extra_nl + 1);
        if (!buf)
                return -ENOMEM;
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        f = fopen(fn, "re");
        if (!f)
                return -errno;

        /* We try to read one byte more than we need, so that we know whether we hit eof */
        errno = 0;
        k = fread(buf, 1, l + accept_extra_nl + 1, f);
        if (ferror(f))
                return errno > 0 ? -errno : -EIO;

        if (k != l && k != l + accept_extra_nl)
                return 0;
        if (memcmp(buf, blob, l) != 0)
                return 0;
        if (k > l && buf[l] != '\n')
                return 0;

        return 1;
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}

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int read_full_stream(FILE *f, char **contents, size_t *size) {
        size_t n, l;
        _cleanup_free_ char *buf = NULL;
        struct stat st;

        assert(f);
        assert(contents);

        if (fstat(fileno(f), &st) < 0)
                return -errno;

        n = LINE_MAX;

        if (S_ISREG(st.st_mode)) {

                /* Safety check */
                if (st.st_size > 4*1024*1024)
                        return -E2BIG;

                /* Start with the right file size, but be prepared for
                 * files from /proc which generally report a file size
                 * of 0 */
                if (st.st_size > 0)
                        n = st.st_size;
        }

        l = 0;
        for (;;) {
                char *t;
                size_t k;

                t = realloc(buf, n+1);
                if (!t)
                        return -ENOMEM;

                buf = t;
                k = fread(buf + l, 1, n - l, f);

                if (k <= 0) {
                        if (ferror(f))
                                return -errno;

                        break;
                }

                l += k;
                n *= 2;

                /* Safety check */
                if (n > 4*1024*1024)
                        return -E2BIG;
        }

        buf[l] = 0;
        *contents = buf;
        buf = NULL; /* do not free */

        if (size)
                *size = l;

        return 0;
}

int read_full_file(const char *fn, char **contents, size_t *size) {
        _cleanup_fclose_ FILE *f = NULL;

        assert(fn);
        assert(contents);

        f = fopen(fn, "re");
        if (!f)
                return -errno;

        return read_full_stream(f, contents, size);
}

static int parse_env_file_internal(
                FILE *f,
                const char *fname,
                const char *newline,
                int (*push) (const char *filename, unsigned line,
                             const char *key, char *value, void *userdata, int *n_pushed),
                void *userdata,
                int *n_pushed) {

        _cleanup_free_ char *contents = NULL, *key = NULL;
        size_t key_alloc = 0, n_key = 0, value_alloc = 0, n_value = 0, last_value_whitespace = (size_t) -1, last_key_whitespace = (size_t) -1;
        char *p, *value = NULL;
        int r;
        unsigned line = 1;

        enum {
                PRE_KEY,
                KEY,
                PRE_VALUE,
                VALUE,
                VALUE_ESCAPE,
                SINGLE_QUOTE_VALUE,
                SINGLE_QUOTE_VALUE_ESCAPE,
                DOUBLE_QUOTE_VALUE,
                DOUBLE_QUOTE_VALUE_ESCAPE,
                COMMENT,
                COMMENT_ESCAPE
        } state = PRE_KEY;

        assert(newline);

        if (f)
                r = read_full_stream(f, &contents, NULL);
        else
                r = read_full_file(fname, &contents, NULL);
        if (r < 0)
                return r;

        for (p = contents; *p; p++) {
                char c = *p;

                switch (state) {

                case PRE_KEY:
                        if (strchr(COMMENTS, c))
                                state = COMMENT;
                        else if (!strchr(WHITESPACE, c)) {
                                state = KEY;
                                last_key_whitespace = (size_t) -1;

                                if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(key, key_alloc, n_key+2)) {
                                        r = -ENOMEM;
                                        goto fail;
                                }

                                key[n_key++] = c;
                        }
                        break;

                case KEY:
                        if (strchr(newline, c)) {
                                state = PRE_KEY;
                                line ++;
                                n_key = 0;
                        } else if (c == '=') {
                                state = PRE_VALUE;
                                last_value_whitespace = (size_t) -1;
                        } else {
                                if (!strchr(WHITESPACE, c))
                                        last_key_whitespace = (size_t) -1;
                                else if (last_key_whitespace == (size_t) -1)
                                         last_key_whitespace = n_key;

                                if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(key, key_alloc, n_key+2)) {
                                        r = -ENOMEM;
                                        goto fail;
                                }

                                key[n_key++] = c;
                        }

                        break;

                case PRE_VALUE:
                        if (strchr(newline, c)) {
                                state = PRE_KEY;
                                line ++;
                                key[n_key] = 0;

                                if (value)
                                        value[n_value] = 0;

                                /* strip trailing whitespace from key */
                                if (last_key_whitespace != (size_t) -1)
                                        key[last_key_whitespace] = 0;

                                r = push(fname, line, key, value, userdata, n_pushed);
                                if (r < 0)
                                        goto fail;

                                n_key = 0;
                                value = NULL;
                                value_alloc = n_value = 0;

                        } else if (c == '\'')
                                state = SINGLE_QUOTE_VALUE;
                        else if (c == '\"')
                                state = DOUBLE_QUOTE_VALUE;
                        else if (c == '\\')
                                state = VALUE_ESCAPE;
                        else if (!strchr(WHITESPACE, c)) {
                                state = VALUE;

                                if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(value, value_alloc, n_value+2)) {
                                        r = -ENOMEM;
                                        goto fail;
                                }

                                value[n_value++] = c;
                        }

                        break;

                case VALUE:
                        if (strchr(newline, c)) {
                                state = PRE_KEY;
                                line ++;

                                key[n_key] = 0;

                                if (value)
                                        value[n_value] = 0;

                                /* Chomp off trailing whitespace from value */
                                if (last_value_whitespace != (size_t) -1)
                                        value[last_value_whitespace] = 0;

                                /* strip trailing whitespace from key */
                                if (last_key_whitespace != (size_t) -1)
                                        key[last_key_whitespace] = 0;

                                r = push(fname, line, key, value, userdata, n_pushed);
                                if (r < 0)
                                        goto fail;

                                n_key = 0;
                                value = NULL;
                                value_alloc = n_value = 0;

                        } else if (c == '\\') {
                                state = VALUE_ESCAPE;
                                last_value_whitespace = (size_t) -1;
                        } else {
                                if (!strchr(WHITESPACE, c))
                                        last_value_whitespace = (size_t) -1;
                                else if (last_value_whitespace == (size_t) -1)
                                        last_value_whitespace = n_value;

                                if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(value, value_alloc, n_value+2)) {
                                        r = -ENOMEM;
                                        goto fail;
                                }

                                value[n_value++] = c;
                        }

                        break;

                case VALUE_ESCAPE:
                        state = VALUE;

                        if (!strchr(newline, c)) {
                                /* Escaped newlines we eat up entirely */
                                if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(value, value_alloc, n_value+2)) {
                                        r = -ENOMEM;
                                        goto fail;
                                }

                                value[n_value++] = c;
                        }
                        break;

                case SINGLE_QUOTE_VALUE:
                        if (c == '\'')
                                state = PRE_VALUE;
                        else if (c == '\\')
                                state = SINGLE_QUOTE_VALUE_ESCAPE;
                        else {
                                if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(value, value_alloc, n_value+2)) {
                                        r = -ENOMEM;
                                        goto fail;
                                }

                                value[n_value++] = c;
                        }

                        break;

                case SINGLE_QUOTE_VALUE_ESCAPE:
                        state = SINGLE_QUOTE_VALUE;

                        if (!strchr(newline, c)) {
                                if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(value, value_alloc, n_value+2)) {
                                        r = -ENOMEM;
                                        goto fail;
                                }

                                value[n_value++] = c;
                        }
                        break;

                case DOUBLE_QUOTE_VALUE:
                        if (c == '\"')
                                state = PRE_VALUE;
                        else if (c == '\\')
                                state = DOUBLE_QUOTE_VALUE_ESCAPE;
                        else {
                                if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(value, value_alloc, n_value+2)) {
                                        r = -ENOMEM;
                                        goto fail;
                                }

                                value[n_value++] = c;
                        }

                        break;

                case DOUBLE_QUOTE_VALUE_ESCAPE:
                        state = DOUBLE_QUOTE_VALUE;

                        if (!strchr(newline, c)) {
                                if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(value, value_alloc, n_value+2)) {
                                        r = -ENOMEM;
                                        goto fail;
                                }

                                value[n_value++] = c;
                        }
                        break;

                case COMMENT:
                        if (c == '\\')
                                state = COMMENT_ESCAPE;
                        else if (strchr(newline, c)) {
                                state = PRE_KEY;
                                line ++;
                        }
                        break;

                case COMMENT_ESCAPE:
                        state = COMMENT;
                        break;
                }
        }

        if (state == PRE_VALUE ||
            state == VALUE ||
            state == VALUE_ESCAPE ||
            state == SINGLE_QUOTE_VALUE ||
            state == SINGLE_QUOTE_VALUE_ESCAPE ||
            state == DOUBLE_QUOTE_VALUE ||
            state == DOUBLE_QUOTE_VALUE_ESCAPE) {

                key[n_key] = 0;

                if (value)
                        value[n_value] = 0;

                if (state == VALUE)
                        if (last_value_whitespace != (size_t) -1)
                                value[last_value_whitespace] = 0;

                /* strip trailing whitespace from key */
                if (last_key_whitespace != (size_t) -1)
                        key[last_key_whitespace] = 0;

                r = push(fname, line, key, value, userdata, n_pushed);
                if (r < 0)
                        goto fail;
        }

        return 0;

fail:
        free(value);
        return r;
}

static int parse_env_file_push(
                const char *filename, unsigned line,
                const char *key, char *value,
                void *userdata,
                int *n_pushed) {

        const char *k;
        va_list aq, *ap = userdata;

        if (!utf8_is_valid(key)) {
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                _cleanup_free_ char *p = NULL;
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                p = utf8_escape_invalid(key);
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                log_error("%s:%u: invalid UTF-8 in key '%s', ignoring.", strna(filename), line, p);
                return -EINVAL;
        }

        if (value && !utf8_is_valid(value)) {
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                _cleanup_free_ char *p = NULL;
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                p = utf8_escape_invalid(value);
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                log_error("%s:%u: invalid UTF-8 value for key %s: '%s', ignoring.", strna(filename), line, key, p);
                return -EINVAL;
        }

        va_copy(aq, *ap);

        while ((k = va_arg(aq, const char *))) {
                char **v;

                v = va_arg(aq, char **);

                if (streq(key, k)) {
                        va_end(aq);
                        free(*v);
                        *v = value;

                        if (n_pushed)
                                (*n_pushed)++;

                        return 1;
                }
        }

        va_end(aq);
        free(value);

        return 0;
}

int parse_env_file(
                const char *fname,
                const char *newline, ...) {

        va_list ap;
        int r, n_pushed = 0;

        if (!newline)
                newline = NEWLINE;

        va_start(ap, newline);
        r = parse_env_file_internal(NULL, fname, newline, parse_env_file_push, &ap, &n_pushed);
        va_end(ap);

        return r < 0 ? r : n_pushed;
}

static int load_env_file_push(
                const char *filename, unsigned line,
                const char *key, char *value,
                void *userdata,
                int *n_pushed) {
        char ***m = userdata;
        char *p;
        int r;

        if (!utf8_is_valid(key)) {
                _cleanup_free_ char *t = utf8_escape_invalid(key);

                log_error("%s:%u: invalid UTF-8 for key '%s', ignoring.", strna(filename), line, t);
                return -EINVAL;
        }

        if (value && !utf8_is_valid(value)) {
                _cleanup_free_ char *t = utf8_escape_invalid(value);

                log_error("%s:%u: invalid UTF-8 value for key %s: '%s', ignoring.", strna(filename), line, key, t);
                return -EINVAL;
        }

        p = strjoin(key, "=", strempty(value), NULL);
        if (!p)
                return -ENOMEM;

        r = strv_consume(m, p);
        if (r < 0)
                return r;

        if (n_pushed)
                (*n_pushed)++;

        free(value);
        return 0;
}

int load_env_file(FILE *f, const char *fname, const char *newline, char ***rl) {
        char **m = NULL;
        int r;

        if (!newline)
                newline = NEWLINE;

        r = parse_env_file_internal(f, fname, newline, load_env_file_push, &m, NULL);
        if (r < 0) {
                strv_free(m);
                return r;
        }

        *rl = m;
        return 0;
}

static int load_env_file_push_pairs(
                const char *filename, unsigned line,
                const char *key, char *value,
                void *userdata,
                int *n_pushed) {
        char ***m = userdata;
        int r;

        if (!utf8_is_valid(key)) {
                _cleanup_free_ char *t = utf8_escape_invalid(key);

                log_error("%s:%u: invalid UTF-8 for key '%s', ignoring.", strna(filename), line, t);
                return -EINVAL;
        }

        if (value && !utf8_is_valid(value)) {
                _cleanup_free_ char *t = utf8_escape_invalid(value);

                log_error("%s:%u: invalid UTF-8 value for key %s: '%s', ignoring.", strna(filename), line, key, t);
                return -EINVAL;
        }

        r = strv_extend(m, key);
        if (r < 0)
                return -ENOMEM;

        if (!value) {
                r = strv_extend(m, "");
                if (r < 0)
                        return -ENOMEM;
        } else {
                r = strv_push(m, value);
                if (r < 0)
                        return r;
        }

        if (n_pushed)
                (*n_pushed)++;

        return 0;
}

int load_env_file_pairs(FILE *f, const char *fname, const char *newline, char ***rl) {
        char **m = NULL;
        int r;

        if (!newline)
                newline = NEWLINE;

        r = parse_env_file_internal(f, fname, newline, load_env_file_push_pairs, &m, NULL);
        if (r < 0) {
                strv_free(m);
                return r;
        }

        *rl = m;
        return 0;
}

static void write_env_var(FILE *f, const char *v) {
        const char *p;

        p = strchr(v, '=');
        if (!p) {
                /* Fallback */
                fputs(v, f);
                fputc('\n', f);
                return;
        }

        p++;
        fwrite(v, 1, p-v, f);

        if (string_has_cc(p, NULL) || chars_intersect(p, WHITESPACE SHELL_NEED_QUOTES)) {
                fputc('\"', f);

                for (; *p; p++) {
                        if (strchr(SHELL_NEED_ESCAPE, *p))
                                fputc('\\', f);

                        fputc(*p, f);
                }

                fputc('\"', f);
        } else
                fputs(p, f);

        fputc('\n', f);
}

int write_env_file(const char *fname, char **l) {
        _cleanup_fclose_ FILE *f = NULL;
        _cleanup_free_ char *p = NULL;
        char **i;
        int r;

        assert(fname);

        r = fopen_temporary(fname, &f, &p);
        if (r < 0)
                return r;

        fchmod_umask(fileno(f), 0644);

        STRV_FOREACH(i, l)
                write_env_var(f, *i);

        r = fflush_and_check(f);
        if (r >= 0) {
                if (rename(p, fname) >= 0)
                        return 0;

                r = -errno;
        }

        unlink(p);
        return r;
}

int executable_is_script(const char *path, char **interpreter) {
        int r;
        _cleanup_free_ char *line = NULL;
        int len;
        char *ans;

        assert(path);

        r = read_one_line_file(path, &line);
        if (r < 0)
                return r;

        if (!startswith(line, "#!"))
                return 0;

        ans = strstrip(line + 2);
        len = strcspn(ans, " \t");

        if (len == 0)
                return 0;

        ans = strndup(ans, len);
        if (!ans)
                return -ENOMEM;

        *interpreter = ans;
        return 1;
}

/**
 * Retrieve one field from a file like /proc/self/status.  pattern
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 * should not include whitespace or the delimiter (':'). pattern matches only
 * the beginning of a line. Whitespace before ':' is skipped. Whitespace and
 * zeros after the ':' will be skipped. field must be freed afterwards.
 * terminator specifies the terminating characters of the field value (not
 * included in the value).
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 */
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int get_proc_field(const char *filename, const char *pattern, const char *terminator, char **field) {
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        _cleanup_free_ char *status = NULL;
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        char *t, *f;
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        size_t len;
        int r;

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        assert(terminator);
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        assert(filename);
        assert(pattern);
        assert(field);

        r = read_full_file(filename, &status, NULL);
        if (r < 0)
                return r;

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        t = status;

        do {
                bool pattern_ok;

                do {
                        t = strstr(t, pattern);
                        if (!t)
                                return -ENOENT;

                        /* Check that pattern occurs in beginning of line. */
                        pattern_ok = (t == status || t[-1] == '\n');

                        t += strlen(pattern);

                } while (!pattern_ok);

                t += strspn(t, " \t");
                if (!*t)
                        return -ENOENT;

        } while (*t != ':');

        t++;
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        if (*t) {
                t += strspn(t, " \t");

                /* Also skip zeros, because when this is used for
                 * capabilities, we don't want the zeros. This way the
                 * same capability set always maps to the same string,
                 * irrespective of the total capability set size. For
                 * other numbers it shouldn't matter. */
                t += strspn(t, "0");
                /* Back off one char if there's nothing but whitespace
                   and zeros */
                if (!*t || isspace(*t))
                        t --;
        }

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        len = strcspn(t, terminator);
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        f = strndup(t, len);
        if (!f)
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                return -ENOMEM;

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        *field = f;
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        return 0;
}
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DIR *xopendirat(int fd, const char *name, int flags) {
        int nfd;
        DIR *d;

        assert(!(flags & O_CREAT));

        nfd = openat(fd, name, O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_DIRECTORY|O_CLOEXEC|flags, 0);
        if (nfd < 0)
                return NULL;

        d = fdopendir(nfd);
        if (!d) {
                safe_close(nfd);
                return NULL;
        }

        return d;
}

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#if 0 /* NM_IGNORED */
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static int search_and_fopen_internal(const char *path, const char *mode, const char *root, char **search, FILE **_f) {
        char **i;

        assert(path);
        assert(mode);
        assert(_f);

        if (!path_strv_resolve_uniq(search, root))
                return -ENOMEM;

        STRV_FOREACH(i, search) {
                _cleanup_free_ char *p = NULL;
                FILE *f;

                if (root)
                        p = strjoin(root, *i, "/", path, NULL);
                else
                        p = strjoin(*i, "/", path, NULL);
                if (!p)
                        return -ENOMEM;

                f = fopen(p, mode);
                if (f) {
                        *_f = f;
                        return 0;
                }

                if (errno != ENOENT)
                        return -errno;
        }

        return -ENOENT;
}

int search_and_fopen(const char *path, const char *mode, const char *root, const char **search, FILE **_f) {
        _cleanup_strv_free_ char **copy = NULL;

        assert(path);
        assert(mode);
        assert(_f);

        if (path_is_absolute(path)) {
                FILE *f;

                f = fopen(path, mode);
                if (f) {
                        *_f = f;
                        return 0;
                }

                return -errno;
        }

        copy = strv_copy((char**) search);
        if (!copy)
                return -ENOMEM;

        return search_and_fopen_internal(path, mode, root, copy, _f);
}

int search_and_fopen_nulstr(const char *path, const char *mode, const char *root, const char *search, FILE **_f) {
        _cleanup_strv_free_ char **s = NULL;

        if (path_is_absolute(path)) {
                FILE *f;

                f = fopen(path, mode);
                if (f) {
                        *_f = f;
                        return 0;
                }

                return -errno;
        }

        s = strv_split_nulstr(search);
        if (!s)
                return -ENOMEM;

        return search_and_fopen_internal(path, mode, root, s, _f);
}
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#endif /* NM_IGNORED */
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int fopen_temporary(const char *path, FILE **_f, char **_temp_path) {
        FILE *f;
        char *t;
        int r, fd;

        assert(path);
        assert(_f);
        assert(_temp_path);

        r = tempfn_xxxxxx(path, NULL, &t);
        if (r < 0)
                return r;

        fd = mkostemp_safe(t, O_WRONLY|O_CLOEXEC);
        if (fd < 0) {
                free(t);
                return -errno;
        }

        f = fdopen(fd, "we");
        if (!f) {
                unlink_noerrno(t);
                free(t);
                safe_close(fd);
                return -errno;
        }

        *_f = f;
        *_temp_path = t;

        return 0;
}

int fflush_and_check(FILE *f) {
        assert(f);

        errno = 0;
        fflush(f);

        if (ferror(f))
                return errno ? -errno : -EIO;

        return 0;
}

/* This is much like like mkostemp() but is subject to umask(). */
int mkostemp_safe(char *pattern, int flags) {
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        _cleanup_umask_ mode_t u = 0;
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        int fd;

        assert(pattern);

        u = umask(077);

        fd = mkostemp(pattern, flags);
        if (fd < 0)
                return -errno;

        return fd;
}

int open_tmpfile(const char *path, int flags) {
        char *p;
        int fd;

        assert(path);

#ifdef O_TMPFILE
        /* Try O_TMPFILE first, if it is supported */
        fd = open(path, flags|O_TMPFILE|O_EXCL, S_IRUSR|S_IWUSR);
        if (fd >= 0)
                return fd;
#endif

        /* Fall back to unguessable name + unlinking */
        p = strjoina(path, "/systemd-tmp-XXXXXX");

        fd = mkostemp_safe(p, flags);
        if (fd < 0)
                return fd;

        unlink(p);
        return fd;
}

int tempfn_xxxxxx(const char *p, const char *extra, char **ret) {
        const char *fn;
        char *t;

        assert(p);
        assert(ret);

        /*
         * Turns this:
         *         /foo/bar/waldo
         *
         * Into this:
         *         /foo/bar/.#<extra>waldoXXXXXX
         */

        fn = basename(p);
        if (!filename_is_valid(fn))
                return -EINVAL;

        if (extra == NULL)
                extra = "";

        t = new(char, strlen(p) + 2 + strlen(extra) + 6 + 1);
        if (!t)
                return -ENOMEM;

        strcpy(stpcpy(stpcpy(stpcpy(mempcpy(t, p, fn - p), ".#"), extra), fn), "XXXXXX");

        *ret = path_kill_slashes(t);
        return 0;
}

int tempfn_random(const char *p, const char *extra, char **ret) {
        const char *fn;
        char *t, *x;
        uint64_t u;
        unsigned i;

        assert(p);
        assert(ret);

        /*
         * Turns this:
         *         /foo/bar/waldo
         *
         * Into this:
         *         /foo/bar/.#<extra>waldobaa2a261115984a9
         */

        fn = basename(p);
        if (!filename_is_valid(fn))
                return -EINVAL;

        if (!extra)
                extra = "";

        t = new(char, strlen(p) + 2 + strlen(extra) + 16 + 1);
        if (!t)
                return -ENOMEM;

        x = stpcpy(stpcpy(stpcpy(mempcpy(t, p, fn - p), ".#"), extra), fn);

        u = random_u64();
        for (i = 0; i < 16; i++) {
                *(x++) = hexchar(u & 0xF);
                u >>= 4;
        }

        *x = 0;

        *ret = path_kill_slashes(t);
        return 0;
}

int tempfn_random_child(const char *p, const char *extra, char **ret) {
        char *t, *x;
        uint64_t u;
        unsigned i;

        assert(p);
        assert(ret);

        /* Turns this:
         *         /foo/bar/waldo
         * Into this:
         *         /foo/bar/waldo/.#<extra>3c2b6219aa75d7d0
         */

        if (!extra)
                extra = "";

        t = new(char, strlen(p) + 3 + strlen(extra) + 16 + 1);
        if (!t)
                return -ENOMEM;

        x = stpcpy(stpcpy(stpcpy(t, p), "/.#"), extra);

        u = random_u64();
        for (i = 0; i < 16; i++) {
                *(x++) = hexchar(u & 0xF);
                u >>= 4;
        }

        *x = 0;

        *ret = path_kill_slashes(t);
        return 0;
}

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#if 0 /* NM_IGNORED */
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int write_timestamp_file_atomic(const char *fn, usec_t n) {
        char ln[DECIMAL_STR_MAX(n)+2];

        /* Creates a "timestamp" file, that contains nothing but a
         * usec_t timestamp, formatted in ASCII. */

        if (n <= 0 || n >= USEC_INFINITY)
                return -ERANGE;

        xsprintf(ln, USEC_FMT "\n", n);

        return write_string_file(fn, ln, WRITE_STRING_FILE_CREATE|WRITE_STRING_FILE_ATOMIC);
}
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#endif /* NM_IGNORED */
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int read_timestamp_file(const char *fn, usec_t *ret) {
        _cleanup_free_ char *ln = NULL;
        uint64_t t;
        int r;

        r = read_one_line_file(fn, &ln);
        if (r < 0)
                return r;

        r = safe_atou64(ln, &t);
        if (r < 0)
                return r;

        if (t <= 0 || t >= (uint64_t) USEC_INFINITY)
                return -ERANGE;

        *ret = (usec_t) t;
        return 0;
}